Effect Of ICT On Student’s Achievement In Business Studies In Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA, Edo State

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Effect Of ICT On Student’s Achievement In Business Studies In Secondary Schools In Oredo LGA, Edo State


Abstract


The study attempted to assess the effect of ICT on student’s achievement in Business Studies in secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State. In this study, relevant and extensive literature was reviewed under subheadings. The survey research design was used to assess responses of the selected respondents, with the application of the questionnaire and the sampling technique. A total of 200 (two hundred) respondents were selected and used for this study, which represented the bulk of the population. The research was guided by two research questions and two hypotheses. Data were collected using “ICT and Students Performance Questionnaire” (ICTSPQ). The collected data were analyzed using mean and standard deviation to answer the research questions while chi-square was used to test the null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The finding of the study revealed that ICT has a significant influence on the academic achievement of science and Business Studies education students. The use of ICT also influenced significantly the academic achievements of male and female science and Business Studies education students. The study recommended among others that students should embrace the use of ICT irrespective of gender to enhance their performance in science and Business Studies education.

 


Table of Contents


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Types of ICT’s Used In Education
  • 2.3 Concept of E-Learning
  • 2.3.1 Blended Learning
  • 2.3.2 Open and Distance Learning
  • 2.4 Advantages of ICT
  • 2.5 Impact of ICT’s on Learning & Achievement
  • 2.6 ICT’s Impact on Environmental Sustainability
  • 2.7 The Impacts of ICT’s on Students’ Performance
  • 2.8 Technological Development
  • 2.9 Impacts of ICT on Students Academic Achievement
  • 2.9.1 ICT and Student Performance
  • 2.9.2 Individual Learner Interactivity
  • 2.9.3 Engage Students by Motivation
  • 2.9.4 Increasing Learner Independence
  • 2.9.5 Enhancing Efficiency and Effectiveness of Education Administration
  • 2.9.6 Active Learning and Authentic Assessment
  • 2.9.7 Teachers Pedagogical Skills in Teaching And Learning Processes
  • 2.10 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Sources of Data
  • 3.3 Population Of The Study
  • 3.4 Sampling of the Study
  • 3.5 Instrumentation
  • 3.6 Reliability and Validity
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.3 Discussion of Finding

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

During the last two decades higher education institutions have invested heavily in information and communication technologies (ICT). ICT has had a major impact in the university context, in organization and in teaching and learning methods. One puzzling question is the effective impact of these technologies on student achievement and on the returns of education. Many academic researchers have tried to answer this question at the theoretical and empirical levels. They have faced two main difficulties. On one hand, student performance is hard to observe and there is still confusion about its definition. On the other hand, ICT is evolving technologies and their effects are difficult to isolate from their environment.

There is no standard definition for student performance. The standard approach focuses on achievement and curricula, how students understand the courses and obtain their degrees or their marks. However, a more extensive definition deals with competencies, skills and attitudes learned through the education experience. The narrow definition allows the observation of the outcomes of any change in higher education, while the more extensive definition needs a more complex strategy of observation and a focus on the labour market. The outcomes of education are mainly validated in the labour market. The impact of ICT on learning is currently in relation to use of digital media, primarily computers and internet to facilitate teaching and learning. ICTs are the technologies used in conveying, manipulation and storage of data by electronic means, they provide an array of powerful tools that may help in transforming the present isolated teacher-centered and text-bound classrooms into rich, student-focused, interactive knowledge environments.

To meet these challenges, learning institutions must embrace the new technologies and appropriate ICT tools for learning. The relationship between the use of ICT and student performance in higher education is not clear, and there are contradictory results in the literature. Earlier economic research has failed to provide a clear consensus concerning the effect on students’ achievement.

Business Studies and its applications have changed dramatically. The advent of calculation and computers as tools in Business Studies have changed the way mathematicians do Business Studies and the way scientists, engineers, and social scientists use Business Studies. Many individuals are proposing that it is time to re-evaluate the content of the Business Studies curriculum in order that it begins to reflect these changes (Arlmond, 2002).

New technologically supported learning environment are being designed that focus on aspects of Business Studies teaching that have tended to be neglected in the past. For example, a project involving the use of computer tools (e.g. curve-fitting programs, generators of tables of values, symbolic manipulators, and function graphers) to develop students’ understanding of Business Studies concepts and their ability to solve problems requiring Business Studies, before they master symbol manipulation techniques has been researched by Fey (1989) and Heid (1990) with first-year Business Studies students.

Other projects have focused on the dynamic capabilities of graphing software to help the students make links among the tabular, graphic and Mathematical representations used in coordinate geometry. Still other research studies have emphasized the role of programming in enriching students’ concepts of variable and in developing their ability to construct formalized rules and to set up equations. Business Studies education is at the crossroads. With the advent of technology, continuing the old style of Business Studies curricula techniques is clearly questionable. Yet most school Business Studies curricula at the beginning of the 1990s integrate neither the power of Business Studies as a thinking tool for justification and generalization, nor the potential of technology to work hand-in-hand with Business Studies instruction. Both aspects warrant careful consideration by Business Studies education researchers, Business Studies curriculum developers and teachers (George, 1998).

ICT enhances students’ performance in Business Studies both in secondary and tertiary institutions in Nigeria. For instance, students in science, particularly those studying Business Studies, find the use of information communication technology relevant in recalling facts and figures and in doing quick calculations which enhances their achievement in schools (Adeleke, 2000).

The greatest achievement in the twentieth century was the development of Information Communication Technology (ICT) for the use by all facets of human endeavours. Major challenges in technology have always caused changes in the society. In the middle of the 18th century, a series of interventions made it possible for people to “mass produce” items. The then agricultural world became industrial world. The methods of product transportation and communication were improved significantly and the elite group acquired many fortunes rapidly by using as a commodity and the organized banking system as the means of controlling the new industrialized society (Kaiya and Ndomi, 1999).

According to Osusanya and Oloyode (2003), with the rapid growth of industrialization, came the need for handling the ever increasing volume of information concerning parts and people. This formed the basis for the development of the computer. At present, powerful computers are used to store large volumes of information. Information and communication technology are the major employer of computers so much that the two are thought to be synonymous. Goyal (1998) pointed out that its growth and development is one of the most significant achievement of the present century.

As a matter of fact, there are several sites on the worldwide web (www) (like goggle and yahoo sites) which provide information on how the network is used for the teaching of various science or Business Studies courses. The materials at the sites teach students to think laterally, longitudinally and across board. Results of the studies conducted on impact of computer used as aid to instruction on students’ attitudes and achievement in science, particularly in Business Studies related courses showed general improvement (Adamsons, 2000).

Telecommunication is a special kind of communication in which information is conveyed over a long distance. Information communication technology (ICT) also refers to the more efficient and effective way of storing, accessing and updating information than processes involving paper. In the recent time, students have benefited from the use of information communication technology (ICT) such as computer, television, telephone and the internet as a veritable source of information in their academic career or pursuit, especially in science and Business Studies related disciplines. Uzoma (1999), stated that students, mostly adolescents use the information communication technology especially the internet to gather vital educational information or materials, register their courses of study, check their results of JAMB, NECO, GCE, POST UME and so on.

Onuoha (2000), posited that the advent of information technology has made education more simple and easy for students especially, the adolescents in secondary schools who offer Business Studies in our school system. Onuoha claimed that information communication technology has helped students in many ways such as project writing and collection of necessary information leading to effective studies. This has enabled many students to achieve high academic achievement in school. He further stated that information communication technology has created a remarkable balance and effectiveness in the daily activities of students who are in the habits of using the computer and the internet to carry out faster storage and retrieval of information in the academic environment or school.
As Adelekunnu (1994) puts it, the training given to children in order to help them meet the demands of the society in which they live is called socialization. According to him, information communication technology (ICT) can be used to assist students to get along with others, achieving self-reliance and educational success. Also, it can help them to achieve professional success and to adhere to societal values and norms. With information technology, students achieve high academic laurels in schools, generally in science, and particularly in Business Studies related subjects.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In recent times, many students have been caught using Global System Mobile Network (GSM) phones to carry out or perpetrate examination malpractices; especially in calculation-based courses like Business Studies and other science related ones to connect friends and associates in crime.

Both adults and students are found to use the GSM phones to tell assorted kinds of lies and deceit in the larger society and this has made corruption to be well rooted in the society in which we live. The more advanced manner in which television programmes are aired are commendable, but many of the programmes show very bad and aggressive films and the children watch them after which they start acting what they have seen and this has affected the child’s psyche negatively. No doubt, the emergence of information communication technology has made students in calculation-based courses like Business Studies to be lazy and more dependant on calculator. Most Business Studies students can no longer do simple arithmetic without consulting the calculator and the internet and so on.

This study attempts to examine the impact of information communications technology (ICT) on the performance of students in Business Studies at the secondary school level.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The purpose of the this study was to assess the effect of ICT on student’s achievement in Business Studies in secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State. The specific objectives were to:

  1. Investigate the influence of ICT on academic achievement of Business Studies students of Selected secondary schools in Oredo LGA, Edo State
  2. Find out the influence of ICT on the academic achievement of male and female Business Studies students of Selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions guided the study

  1. What is the influence of ICT on the mean academic achievement of Business Studies students of selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State?
  2. What is the influence of ICT on the performance of male and female Business Studies students of selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State?

1.5 Hypotheses

  • HO1: The use of ICT has no significant influence on the mean academic achievement of Business Studies student of selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.
  • HO2: There is no significant influence of ICT on the mean academic achievement of male and female Business Studies students of selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study will be beneficial to the following:

Students:

Students would benefit from the findings and recommendations of this study because it would help them to be able to be more aware of the information communication technology in the school. This study will enable students to get more involved in the utilization of information communication technology due to the benefits derivable from it.

Teachers:

They would find this study beneficial because with the findings and recommendations of this study, teachers would avail themselves of the opportunity to get involved in the use of information communication technology because of the numerous benefits that can be derived from it. With the study also, information communication technology and their functions.

Family:

Parents would benefit from this study because it would enable them to know the benefits their children/wards derived from using the information communication technology in their academic work or activities. Parents themselves, will avail themselves of the opportunity of knowing the importance of information communication technology through this study and those who do not use information communication technology would start to use it as it is beneficial to all human activities.

The School Authority:

This study would assist the school authority to be able to know more about information communication technology and its functions especially in the life of the full-time student. The recommendations of this study would enable the school authority to expand its policy on the availability and usage of information communication technology in the school system in Nigeria.

The Society:

The society would benefit from this study, because it will assist the society to be information communication technology friendly due to the advantages it has. This study will afford the society to know more about information communication technology and its functions in the world today.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Effect:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

ICT:

Information and communications technology (ICT) is an extensional term for information technology (IT) that stresses the role of unified communications and the integration of telecommunications (telephone lines and wireless signals) and computers, as well as necessary enterprise software, middleware, storage and audiovisual, that enable users to access, store, transmit, understand and manipulate information.

Academic Achievement:

Is the extent to which a student or institution has achieved either short or long term educational goals. Achievement may be measured through students’ grade point average, whereas for institutions, achievement may be measured through graduation rates.

Business Studies:

Is an academic subject taught in schools and at university level in many countries. Its study combines elements of accountancy, finance, marketing, organizational studies, human resource management, and operations.

Secondary School:

A secondary school describes an institution that provides secondary education and also usually includes the building where this takes place.


1.8 Organization of Study

The study comprises of 5 chapters. In chapter one, the concepts are introduced and the problem of the study is established with the research objectives and questions. Chapter two presents the literature review while chapter three presents the research methodology. The fourth chapter presents the results and discussion, and the last chapter presents the conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

Based on the results of the study, the use of ICT has a significant influence on the mean academic achievement of science and Business Studies education student; ICT has a significant influence on the performance of male and female Business Studies students of Selected secondary schools in Oredo Local Government Area of Edo State. The linking of computers to education across the world is known to many people because it is believed that ICT has a crucial impact on teaching and learning. Therefore Educational Institutions are witnessing a paradigm shift brought about by the use of ICT that others have even started seeing ICT as an indispensable tool in the teaching and learning process. As a results the research findings revealed that students, are continually exposed to the capabilities of ICT, their perceptions towards change. The teachers’ involvement in use of and perception have also change positively towards use of ICT in teaching and learning.


5.2 Conclusion

It is evident from the findings in the study that some schools that have put more effort to integrate ICT in teaching and learning. With this, teachers are faced with the responsibility to utilize ICT. The findings also reveal that teachers in this era should adopt a paradigm shift from old traditional methods of teaching to new methods of teaching in order to implement ICT integration effectively. This will enable them to cater for the needs of 21st century learners.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this research, the following recommendations have been made:

  1. Teachers and students should embrace and sustain the use of ICT facilities in teaching and learning to enhance students’ performance in science and Business Studies.
  2. Both teachers and students regardless of gender should go for ICT training to equip themselves with the skills and knowledge of ICT.
  3. Male and female students of science and Business Studies education should be engaged frequently in ICT based learning activities to enhance their familiarity and performance.

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