Effect Of Home And Its Environment On The Academic Achievement Of Children In Nursery Schools In Lagos State Metropolis

Environmental Education Project and Seminar Material

Effect Of Home And Its Environment On The Academic Achievement Of Children In Nursery Schools In Lagos State Metropolis


Abstract


This study investigated the effect of home and its environment on the academic achievement of children in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis, Nigeria. The study adopted descriptive survey research design. Simple random sampling was used to select the sample included in the study. Target population for the study was all the principals and parents. Questionnaires were used for data collection. The collected data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential statistics using the Statistical Package for Social Scientist (SPSS) version 20. The findings of this study were that the parent’s economic status influences children’s academic achievement (r =0.8), Parent/Family Involvement influence children’s academic achievement in nursery schools (r =0.45) and the parenting styles affects children’s academic achievement in nursery schools (r =0.049) to a great extent. Thus, authoritative parenting was positively associated with academic performance and authoritarian and permissive parenting was negatively associated with good performance. The hypotheses were tested using Pearson’s correlations, multiple regression and analysis of variance (ANOVA). From the findings of this study, the researcher recommended that the Government need to increase the bursary allocation to the students from poor families so as to retain them in school to enhance their performance. The school administration should increase the number of education days for parents so that parents can be more involved with their student’s academic performance. Parents should improve on their family leadership style since this can affect their children performance.


Table of Contents


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypotheses of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Significant Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 The Influence of Family Involvement On Children’s Academic Achievement
  • 2.3 The Influence of Parenting Styles On Children’s Academic Achievement
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework.

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Target Population
  • 3.3 Sample Size and Sampling Procedure
  • 3.4 Research Instruments
  • 3.5 Instrument Validity
  • 3.6 Instrument Reliability
  • 3.7 Data Analysis Techniques

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussions

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion of the Findings

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of the Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendices

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Nigerian environment is associated with unclassified problems entangled with impoverish outlook and being devoid of most modern facilities and infrastructure that could sustain an urban area. This is clearly manifested on the standard of living and the contribution of the people towards national development.

This circumvented problem in the rural areas has adverse effect on the children’s academic achievement. It is imperative therefore to exhume the associated rural problem that affects their academic achievement with the prevailing order in the educational arsenal. Most often than not, there has been persistent cry about the state of intellectual attainment in the school system. This cry does not include only student’s performance in the rural area but in the urban as well.

Environment according to Oxford Advanced dictionary is the natural conditions like land, air and water, in which people, animals and plants live and also circumstances affecting their life. Environment can be physical or psychological. Physical environment deals with material aspects such as infrastructure, availability of resource facilities. The psychological environment includes the home, school community and significantly other people in our lives such as parents, peers and siblings. The quality of our home is very significant; some have a history or tradition of formal education and modern influences, while some are not so well equipped. The gadgets, resources and facilities in both types of home will influence the learning processes of children born in these homes.

The primary environment of a student is the home and it stands to exert tremendous impact on the students’ achievements (Hoover-Dempsey et al., 2005). Moreover, the home is the primary agent of education in the child. Thus, the way the child lives, the food he/she eats and his/her life style is influenced by the home. The type of family system the child is exposed to could influence his academic achievement in school (Keith, 1993). Academic success of a child depends on what parents do at home. Also, Aremu (2000) found in his study that undergraduates that received democratic type of parenting performed better than their counterparts from autocratic homes.

According to Education News Colorado on 18th June 2012, many parents in United States of America are now living in poverty than in 2000. According to Hacker(2008) 58.5 percent, of all Americans will spend at least one year beneath the poverty line which is one dollar a day, at some point between ages 25 and 75. This social economic status of the parents translates into parents’ inability to adequately finance their children’s education. According to Eze, (2002) homes vary markedly in socioeconomic status and academic level, not in amounts of wealth but in the ways in which the family income is obtained.

Many authors (Harris & Gibbon, 1996; Hofferth& Sandberg, 2001; Jameson, 1997; Wallis & Cole, 1998) discuss factors in a home environment that provide children with educational tools needed to achieve academic success. Jameson (1997) specifies the importance of a quiet time and place for homework. There was also a discussion on the negative impact of television, but the positive impact of praise. Harris & Gibbon (1996) state communication is a vital component for school success. Parents who prepare their children talk about setbacks, possible stressors and coping skills. Wallis (1998) wrote a parent’s guide on the importance of encouraging, praising and involvement.
Individual differences in children’s achievement were studied by Baharudin& Luster (1998) relative to differences in the home environment. They found the quality of the children’s home environment to be positively related with achievement. Children with higher test scores came from more supportive homes. The parents of preschool children were asked about conveying positive feelings, answering child’s questions, taking trips to the museum, eating meals as a family, requiring the child to keep play area clean, conversing with the child, and encouraging the child to develop and sustain hobbies.

The literature suggests home environment factors affect school achievement, and home environment factors may be influenced if the family culture follows the current trend. The essence of a ‘traditional American family’ has deteriorated with the stress in many of today’s families because of poverty, single parenting styles and working mothers. Stress in the home deteriorates the environment and these stressors affect school achievement. Hopefully, this study will help to examine home environment factors that may impact children’s academic achievement. Even though Hacker (2008) suggests that you cannot purchase a child’s success or wish it into existence, poverty affects a child’s academic success in many ways. According to Mead, (1992) a U.S. Department of Education study cites the length of time a child spends in disadvantaged conditions, coupled with the degree of poverty of the local school district he or she is enrolled in, as often bearing a direct impact on a child’s ability to maintain an expected grade level.

Methods and results of an empirical study by Kohl, (2000) show divorce is the most common but only one way a traditional family might develop into a single-parent family. Registered marriages are declining in the United States, but separations and divorces remain very high. Half of all marriages are expected to end in divorce. Then again, not all people who separate actually file for divorce. A more representative statistic might be, approximately 64% of the marriages will be disrupted. Whether the reason is divorce or something else Kohl, (2000) reminds us that 50% of the country’s children will live in a single-parent home by the year 2001. He further argued that Children from divorced families are more likely to have difficulties with school performance, delinquency, and disruptions in peer relationships, precocious sexual behavior and substance abuse.

Financial challenges is a prevailing feature amongst many developing countries around the world with ever increasing severe effects of social and economic backdrop felt in countries within sub-Saharan Africa (Hill, 2008). It is arguably a multidimensional challenge found in different forms both in urban and rural areas only possibly differing in its intensity with the effect felt most in day secondary schools depending on the school size.
In a study conducted on the effects of family structure and parenthood on the academic performance of Nigerian University students, Uwaifo (2008) found significant difference between the academic performance of students from single parent family and those from two-parent family structure. Indeed, parental involvement and individuals’ experiences at home play tremendous roles in building the personality of the child and making the child what he is.

Furthermore, many children have been hindered from reaching their optimum level in academic pursuit due to some negative factors arisen from home. These include lack of parental encouragement, lack of conductive environment, poor finance and housing, poor feeding, ill-health and lack of interest on the part of the students.

Children whose school needs (physical and emotional) are not provided for at home may forever remain underachievers and this could affect the general development (physical and human resources) of the country.

Effects of poor academic performance during the school years often carry over to the adulthood, with a higher proportion of school dropouts, behavioral problems and even delinquency among this population.


1.2 Statement of Problem

Most people hold the view that home environment of a child affects his academic performance. Today, most parents are not highly involved in early academic acquisition of their children. In the home mothers are the first teachers, they are care giver and minder of the child during the critical period of their development, though fathers do as well (Brim hail and West, 1997; Gadson and Ray, 2003). The problem arises from the fact that the jobs of so many parents are so demanding and this may explain why they do not have ample time for their children. Some parents are either unable or refuse to provide the basic need of the child due to the socio-economic attainment existing among the various homes in highly civilized areas and this also affect the academic performance in the school. Many conflicting views have been expressed by various authors as the factors that are responsible for this poor standard of academic performance of secondary school students. While some blame this poor performance on the government inadequacy in fulfilling all it’s obligation towards education. Others maintain that teachers are responsible for this state of affairs.

For many years in Nigeria, examinations have been accepted as an important aspect of the educational system. Examinations have always been used as the main basis for judging a student’s ability and also as a means of selection for educational advancement and employment.

Every year, thousands of Nigerian students sit for the West Africa Examination Certificate (WAEC) examination. This examination is done at the end of the fourth year of secondary education. Over the years, discrepancies have been observed in the performance of students in internal examinations as well as in WAEC exams in Enugu North L.G.A, Enugu state.

Although students may be of comparable abilities, learn in the same environment and follow the same syllabus, their academic performance still vary. Despite the fact that the Government of Nigeria has been funding both primary and secondary schools, there is still poor performance among the students. In Enugu North L.G.A there are students who may be bright but perform poorly despite the good learning facilities in their schools.

In Enugu North L.G.A, 80% of secondary schools have had a mean score of less than 5 for the last three years (DEOs office report, 2013). This is a C minus and it indicates that majority of the students do not have the minimum university admission qualification of C plus and above. This performance has raised concern from the parents and stakeholders. Among the factors that are blamed for the students’ poor academic performance, the home environment is hardly mentioned.

Many factors such as lack of facilities in school, lack of teachers, indiscipline, low intelligence, anxiety, pupils’ need to achieve and so on have been found to cause poor academic performance. While, these factors have been identified as possible factors that contribute to the variations in academic performance not much has been done in Nigeria to show the role played by the students’ home environment on his/her academic achievement. This study therefore attempted to find out whether the differences in academic achievement can be attributed to differences in their home environments.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study was to investigate the Effect of home and its environment on the academic achievement of children in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis, Nigeria.

  1. To determine the influence of parents’ economic status on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis
  2. To establish the influence of Parent/Family Involvement on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis
  3. To investigate the effect of parenting style on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the influence of parents’ economic status on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis?
  2. What is the influence of Parent/Family Involvement on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis?
  3. What is the effect of parenting style on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis?

1.5 Hypotheses of the study

This study was guided by the following null hypothesis (H0) hypothesis.

  1. There is no significant relationship between Parents’ economic status and the children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis
  2. There is no significant relationship between parent/family involvement and children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis
  3. There is no significant relationship between parenting and children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis

1.6 Significance of the Study

Hopefully, the study will assist the Principals in schools to understand how home environment affects children’s academic achievement and assist the students to perform better. Also the students will be able to intervene in the case of poor performance to offset the negative effects of changing dynamics of the family. This study will also help the parents to understand the effect of the home environment on academic performance of student’s hence improving their home environment so as to improve student’s academic performance.


1.9 Definition of Significant Terms

Home Environment:

In this study refers to the family where the students are brought up.

Intrinsic Motivation:

Refers to doing an activity for itself and the pleasure and satisfaction derived from participating.

Extrinsic Motivation:

Refers to performing an activity as a means to an end, to satisfy an external demand, or reward

Motivation:

Refers to being neither intrinsically nor extrinsically motivated to perform an activity.

Social Economic Status:

Refers to financial status of the family.

Performance:

Refers to the grades both per subject and overall that the pupil obtained in examination.

Upper Class:

In this study refers to the highest social class in the society. (The rich).

Middle Class:

Refers to the social class with average income.

Poor:

Refers to the class in the society lacking money or material possessions

Poor results:

Refers to the examination outcomes in which the mean grade or individual subject performance curtails the learner from higher education or further training.


1.8 Organization of the Study

The study is organized into chapters. chapter one consists of the: background of the study; statement of the problem, purpose of the study, objectives of the study, hypothesis of the study; significance of the study, limitations of the study, delimitations of the study, basic assumptions of the study, definition of significant term and organization of the study. Chapter two presents the literature review. The theoretical and conceptual frameworks are given at the end of this section. Chapter three presents; research design, target population, sampling procedure and sample size, research instruments, validity and reliability of research instruments, data collection procedure, data analysis, ethical consideration of issues . Chapter four deals with results and discussions. Chapter five deals with conclusions and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations

5.2 Summary of the Findings

The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of home environment on student’s academic performance in secondary schools in Enugu North L.G.A, Enugu state, Nigeria. Data were collected using the questionnaires as the main research instruments. The collected data was coded and analyzed using statistical package for social scientists using both descriptive and inferential statistics.

The first objective for this study was to determine the influence of parent’s economic status on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis. The study revealed that that majority (56%) of the parents were subsistence farmers. This was followed by 29% who are employed and 15% who are non- employed.

The second objective for the study was to establish the influence of Parent/Family Involvement on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis. The study revealed that majority (58%) of the respondents to the parent’s attendance to school education days was good while according to 42% the attendance was very good. Also the correlation coefficient for the relationship between Parent/Family Involvement and children’s academic achievement in nursery schools is +0.45, implying that there is a weak positive relationship between Parent/Family Involvement and children’s academic achievement in nursery schools. ANOVA results are that, F(dfB,dfW) =F(159,1) = 19,75, p<0.05.Indicating that there is significant differences in mean between parents ’involvement and children’s academic achievement.

The last objective for this study was to investigate the effect of parenting style on children’s academic achievement in nursery schools in Lagos state metropolis. The study revealed 51percent of the respondents strongly agreed that the statements that, children of parents who were authoritative tent to be the most achievement oriented, permissive parenting is negatively associated with performance, parenting style is a significant predictor of grades and Previous parenting behaviours continue to be important in the lives of secondary students as with children.


5.3 Conclusion

From the findings of this study the researcher concluded that the parent’s economic status influences children’s academic achievement. This is because the parents will be able to pay school fees in good time and provide other learning materials. This is likely to help the student to perform well in their academics.

Secondly, we can also conclude that, Parent/Family Involvement influence children’s academic achievement in nursery schools. This can be done by attending the school education days, checking on the student’s performance and motivating the student. This is likely to go a long way in improving the student’s performance.

Finally, we can conclude from the findings of this study that, parenting style affects children’s academic achievement in nursery schools to a great extent. Thus, authoritative parenting was positively associated with academic performance; and authoritarian and permissive parenting is negatively associated with good performance.


5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of this study, the researcher wishes to make the recommendations below.

  1. The Government should increase the bursary allocation to the students from poor families so as to retain them in school to enhance their performance.
  2. The school administration needs to increase the number of education days for parents so that parents can be more involved with their student’s academic performance.
  3. Parents ought to improve their parenting styles as this can affect their children performance.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What is the impact of home environment on child’s academic achievement?

Home environment has great impact on L earning the child’s personality and also in their achievement. (Jayanthi J. and Srinivasan achievement. What the child learns at home and how his family motivates him towards education contributes to the child’s success in school, (Essien, 2002). between the home environment and academic achievement.

Does home environment affect educational aspirations?

Goel (2004) instigated the effect of home environment on educational aspirations. The sample of the study comprised 100 students (50 boys and 50 girls) of intermediate classes in age groups of 16-20 years. The results revealed that girls had much higher educational aspiration than boys.

What is the impact of school on student achievement?

Young et al., (1994) studied the impact of school on the achievement level of students and found that children learn through exploration of their environments, in particular the home and school, as important developmental factors.

What are the factors that affect the learning environment?

In his study, Kapinga (2014) found that, home environmental factors (such as parents‟ educational level, parents‟ occupations, parents‟ income, learning environment within home, parental motivation, and availability of learning facilities at home like tables, books and maps) greatly affect the academic performance of the learner. 

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