The Effect Of Hawking On Students Academic Performance In Selected Junior Secondary Schools

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The Effect Of Hawking On Students Academic Performance In Selected Junior Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study examined the effects of street hawking on students academic performance in selected junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. A case study of Egba Odeda High School, Odeda Local Government Abeokuta, Ogun State. The research design adopted for the study was descriptive survey. The study population comprised students in Junior Secondary School one to Junior Secondary School three in Egba Odeda High School Odeda. A sample size of 50 students selected through sampling technique participated in the study. The data were collected from the sample through a questionnaire designed by the researcher. The data collected were analysed with the use of simple percentage. The findings of the study revealed that, street hawking posed danger on parents and children and this needs urgent attention of government within and outside the shores of Nigeria in order to eradicates street hawking in Nigeria.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The emergence of street hawking in Nigeria as been so prevalent of which it as now become an eye. Sore situation Education. Education is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such nation. It is generally believed that the basis for any true development must commence with the development of human resource.
Much than is said that formal education remains the vehicle for socio-economic, psychological and environmental development of any society. When we come to think of students, they are the ones who learn ideas to become more responsible and productive someday. Students from the rich and the poor, especially those in Egba Odeda High School are affected by myriad of factors. Examples of those factors are socio-economic, psychological and environmental factors. Socio-economic factors are believed to be the common factors affecting student’s academic performance. They have been suffering and socio-economic gap between families (Johnson, 1996), lamented that parents become poor due to those hard measure, such that they can no longer adequately for good education of their children.

High level of illiteracy, and poverty and low socio-economic status complied with high rate of paternal and material deprivation of student academic needs, which was necessitated by poor socio-economic situation. Home background according to PISA (Programme International Student Assessment, 2000) influences academic and educational success of students and school work, while socio-economic status reinforces the activities and functioning of the students.

Psychological factors also gives a big impact on student’s performance. One of these is street hawking among students. Danesy and Okediran (2002) elaborated that street hawking among students have psychologically imposed other problems, like sex networking behaviour, juvenile sequent behaviour, which takes much of the school time that necessities the poor academic performance and dropout syndrome among students.

Environment factors also influence academic performance learning environment is one. The learning environment that is free of barriers, or obstacles or distractions such as noise, gas/smoke pollutions and so on can constitute health hazards which in return affect or reduce student’s concentration or perceptive or conceptive focus to learning (Sprinthall, 1987).

Goethals (2001) found out that weak students do better when grouped with other weak students. As implied by Zonjonc (1976) that students of their own kind help them to improve their performance.

Socerdoke (2001) found out that grades are higher when students have unusually academically strong study partner. The findings of Zimmerman (1991, 2001) where some what contradictory to Goethal results but again is proved that student’s performance depends on number of different factor; it says that the weak peers might reduce the grades of middling or strong students.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This project aims to determine the effects of hawking on students academic performance in selected junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. Many factors has been contributed to this effect of street hawking on students academic performance. And some of this factors are: socio-economic factor, psychological factor and environmental factor.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The following include the purpose of this study:

  1. To find solution to the effect of hawking on students academic performance.
  2. To investigate the academic performance of students from street hawking,
  3. To determine whether socio-economic factor, psychological and environmental factors are also affect students academic performance.
  4. To eradicates street hawking in the society.
  5. To urge government to provide free education for all citizens in order to eradicate illiteracy and poverty in the society.

1.4 Significance of the Study

The finding accumulated by this study may provide significant benefits to the following groups or individuals.

School Administration:

They will be able to determine on how big difference they can make on the student’s academic performance. They can make ways to help students excel in their studies. For example, they can conduct school services, activities, academic programs and seminars that can be a sure fit solution to the student’s problems influencing their studies and performance.

Teachers:

They can better understand why such student’s performance is like that. They will be able to help students to cope with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.

Parents:

They will be able to realize their role on their children’s academic performance. They will be able to guide them on their studies especially their performance in school.

Students:

They will be able to know the factors that affect their academic performance. Thus, they will be able to manage their situations. This study will serve as a reason for them to be more serious with their studies in spite of the factors affecting it.


1.5 Scope of the Study

This study focuses mainly on the factors that affect student’s academic performance in Egba Odeda High School Odeda Local Government Abeokuta, Ogun State. The respondents in this study are 50 students. The respondents are asked to fill up the data in the survey questionnaire. The survey questionnaire is composed of two sections. The introductory section includes basic questions used to identify the socio-demographic profiles of students. The second section of the survey questionnaire addresses the statements and questions under each factors mostly encountered by students.

Student respondents are asked to indicate their most appropriate rating for each item. The statement are intended to capture the effects or factors that mostly affects students academic preface.


1.6 Research Question

The researcher would like to provide answers to the following questions

  1. Does hawking affects student’s academic performance?
  2. In what way does socio economic factors are believed to be the common factors affecting student’s academic performance.
  3. What are the causes of street hawking?
  4. Does environmental factors also influence student’s academic performance?
  5. Does parental care affects students academic performance?

1.7 Definition of Terms

To constitute general comprehension, the terms were operationally defined for better understanding and justification of the study.

Hawking:

A process in which a person try to sell things by going from place to place asking people to buy them.

Socio-Economic Factors:

The term that refers to the social and economic aspects that influences student’s academic performance.

Psychological Factors:

The term that refers to the behaviour and mental state of students and the people around him/her which affects his/her study.

Environmental Factors:

The term that refers to the external and circumstances that surrounds the students that influences his/her performance.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

This study examined the effects of street hawking on students academic performance in selected junior secondary schools in Odeda Local Government Area of Ogun State. It discussed other stuffs like the effect of hawking on students academic performance, determined whether socio-economic factor, psychological and environmental factors also affect students academic performance.

Survey research design was employed for the study and with aid of convenient sampling selected fifty-five (55) participant as the sample size for this study. The sources of data collection was both primary and secondary with the application of questionnaires as an instrument to gather the necessary data. The questionnaires were properly completed as well returned by only 50 respondent after being administered and this was a basis by which the primary data were collected. Textbooks, journals, articles, law reports, newspapers publications, were collected as secondary data, and also limitations to the study were indicated. Primary data collated was analyzed using frequencies and tables and the result were similar to those of the responses drawn from the questionnaires.


5.2 Conclusion

Street hawking is highly detrimental to children’s physical, mental, psychological and social development which cannot be over looked. However, in Nigeria, it appears that child development is grossly abused through the increasing display of hawking in almost all the streets in Nigerian towns. In fact, the proportion of hawking and its attendant consequences has uncontrollably assumed an alarming stage as children between 6-15 years are seen everywhere in the cities hawking wares .

From the result of the study, the following constitutes the major findings:

  1. Hawking affects junior student’s academic performance in Odedea Local government.
  2. Socio economic factors such as parent level of income, family size, marital status, level of educational attainment, parent literacy level are the common factors affecting student’s academic performance.
  3. Poverty, poor family planning, parent callousness towards child’s education, empathetic guardian/parents death are the causes of street hawking.
  4. Environmental factors like insecurity, school environment, truancy, peer pressure can also influence student’s academic performance.
  5. Parental care and level of family support offered to the child from the home environment can also affects students academic performance.

5.3 Recommendation

The following recommendations are made based on the findings of the study. If the foregoing recommendations are implemented by relevant agencies, then a great deal would be achieved in the fight to save the Nigerian child.

  1. There should be advocacy campaigns to educate parents and guardians on’ the dangers of hawking to the children.
  2. The government should promulgate a feasible law against street hawking and law enforcement agents should arrest parents and guardians who sent out their children for street hawking.
  3. The government at all levels should not only provide free basic education but also take practical steps to ensure that the education they give is truly and completely free, qualitative, and necessarily compulsory. Legislating and effecting punitive measures on education stakeholders that default will enhance success in this direction.
  4. Since poverty appears to be a primary cause of street hawking, the government at all levels should step-up efforts to improve the economy, as a matter of urgency. This they can do by stemming the tide of unemployment, improving the remuneration of workers, improving infrastructure, creating job opportunities, and empowering the masses in various conceivable ways. This would go a long way to raise the socio-economic condition of most families thus reducing the poverty rate in the country.
  5. School administrators should step-up efforts to curb every form of truancy and loitering in and around their respective schools so that students may be disciplined to stay put in schools and pay attention to their lessons.
  6. Parents and guardians should not neglect their responsibility to provide for members of their family irrespective of whether they are members by blood or by adoption. Parents and guardians whose wards are involved in street hawking should endeavor to protect their wards from the corrupting influence of the society. They can achieve this by training their wards to eschew unacceptable behaviors, by not allowing anything to interfere with their education, and by respecting their right to a secure and happy childhood.

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