The Effect Of GSM On The Academic Performance Among The Polytechnic Students (A Case Study Federal Polytechnic Ede)
This study examines the effect of GSM on the academic performance among the polytechnic students using federal polytechnic Ede as a case study. The study specifically aims to examine the impact of GSM usage on students’ learning and classroom concentration, identify the impacts of GSM usage on students academic performance, exams the relationship between GSM and academic performance, and make recommendations on the usage of GSM at polytechnic. This study anchors on technology acceptance model (TAM), and user and gratification theory. The study employs the survey descriptive research design. The questionnaire is used for data collection which is raised against a four Likert scale of strongly agree (SA), agree (A), disagree (D), and strongly disagree (SD) while the data collected were analyzed using frequency tables, and relative importance index. The hypotheses were tested using ANOVA statistical tool, SPSS v.23. A total of 261 respondents were conveniently selected as sample size, which comprised students of Government technical secondary school Nigeria, while 259 were validated. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings reveals that GSM usage has an impact on students’ learning and classroom concentration. This was concluded at β = 0.896, R2 = 0.952, P = .000. The study also shows that GSM usage has an impact on students academic performance. This was concluded at β = 0.768, R2 = 0.917, P = .000. The study therefore recommends that academic institutions should also implement programmes that can restrict students from using social network sites and applications while in the classroom. Also, students should only be allowed to use their GSM when the teacher tells or recommends them to do so; for example, to access their academic materials or something of the sort.
Keywords: Phone, GSM, Students, Academic Performance
Table of Content
- Title Page
- Table of Content
- List of Tables
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Theoretical Framework
- 2.2 Conceptual Framework
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Demographic Characteristics of the Respondents
- 4.2 Presentation of Results
- 4.3 Research Questions or Research Hypotheses
- 4.4 Summary of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background of the Study
A is a device that can basically make and receive calls over a radio link while moving around a wide geographic area. (Pew Research center, 2010). It does so by connecting to a cellular network provided by a operator, allowing access to the public telephone network. However, the modern phones support very wide range variety of other services apart from making and receive calls. These include; text messaging, MMS, e-mail, internet access, short range wireless communications [(Infrared, Bluetooth, File Transfer Protocol, (FTP)], business applications, gaming and photography.
In our contemporary environment, advances in technology cause individuals all over the world to alter both their patterns of behavior and the ways in which they consume goods. As opined by Mahamud & Fordjour (2015)) the use of information and communication technology, abbreviated as ICT, has affected both the learning process and the methodology of acquiring new information in light of the present day education system. This is evident as on a global scale as Fawareh and Jusoh,(2017 observed that people all over the world have accepted this innovative and fascinating technology such as smart phones as one of the most crucial required facilities in their everyday lives.
Etymologically, smart phones are a technical invention that have gradually become a part of everyone’s life and with this scramble for individual ownership, s companies around the globe has ventured in production of different class of GSM (Thomas& Leonid et’al 2015). It android version are equipped with multimedia phone features, such as camera functions, sound recording functions, video functions, and many other functions. As a result of these developments, Han,& Yi, (2019) asserts that an GSM is designed as a piece of hardware that functions in a manner analogous to that of an operating system for a computer and possesses both computational and networking capabilities. According to Hossain(2019), these were first made available to the public in the year 2000, and ever since then, they have become among of the most well-known and sought-after electronic devices. Due to the fact that it is a compact and intelligent gadget that can easily be carried in one’s pocket, GSM have effectively taken the role of desktop computers in a variety of activities. According to Hossain (2019), it has developed into an essential component of today’s generation in each and every facet of life, particularly for students and younger people, who make up the majority of GSM users and buyers. According to the hypothesis put up by Fawareh and Jusoh (2017), having GSM is analogous to carrying around a portable, little computer. It should come as no surprise that the capabilities of a GSM extend much beyond those of just making and receiving phone calls. In most cases, there are outstanding functions such as those for accessing the internet, monitoring one’s health condition, sending and receiving emails, viewing movies, listening to music, talking, and exchanging images, videos, and other documents, to name just a few examples what theses GSM version can do for people all over the world.
Importantly, the proliferation of GSM and other associated technologies has significantly altered the methods of education as well as it utilized in other developed nations of which developing nations like Siere Lonne is not an exception to this rule.Serdang Darul & Mothar(2019) posits that because GSM are now more readily available and accessible, secondary school students which make up a growing percentage of the population possesses and uses these devices. Studies by Abbas in 2020showed that almost 63 percent of high school students in North America owned GSM, and more than half of those students admitted that they use their GSM to access the internet via Wi-Fi and cellular data to access social networking sites and emails to access their mails and academic articles. More so,a very tiny percentage of students in the United States, but one that is steadily increasing, has shown that student use their GSM for online banking, online shopping, and entertainment purposes According to Vassilakaki, E., Moniarou-Papaconstantinou,& Garoufallou,(2016), students can, for example, access the materials for their lectures on their cellphones; easily access information online to fulfill their information needs via learning management systems; access academic databases and a website; and so on. These are just a few examples. Furthermore, Kibona & Mgaya(2015) assert that the widespread availability of these facilities has resulted in a shift in the method of education, such that students and other learners no longer rely solely on paper-based materials but rather on the capabilities of GSM, which enable students to more effectively drive their learning process and realize their goals. This was made clear in the works of Masiu and Chukwuere (2018), in which they stated that GSM has also made the lives of students easier, as they can access their school information on the gadget through electronic learning (e-learning), and mobile learning. Howbeit these gadgets also govern their lives by presenting them with vital information and data wherever they are and at any time is another worrying aspect of this situation. Ahsan,, Nasir& Abbas(2020) averred that GSMd applications, electronic books and journals, search engines, and social media websites provide student with the means to access and retrieve the informative content. Thus student can utilizes these devices to easily access the internet in order to participate in a variety of online learning processes as established by AlEmran, , Elsherif, & Shaalan,(2016).
However, despite the relative benefits of GSM usage by students, Barnwell (2016) is of the view that most students use their phones to engage in activities that appear to be extremely distracting most of the time. This makes it difficult to strike a balance on GSM as a tool for boosting academic performance which is why there is a need to study the use of GSM, and the academic performance of secondary school students in economics in Nigeria.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Smartphones are equipped with multimedia phone features, which include camera functionality, sound recording function, video function, and many others. These features assist students to drive their learning process and dreams effectively. However, most smartphone and recreational applications are addictive to both higher-level and lower-level students, which in turn affects their academic performance. Impressively, some learning systems have also emerged over the years and involve ubiquitous learning (u-learning), which is being powered by smartphone capabilities in the learning environment. According to Jung (2014), ubiquitous learning (u-learning) combines the characteristics of electronic learning (e-learning) and mobile learning (m-learning) in driving forward different forms of learning through the internet connection process in the 21st century. Joshua, Nehemiah, and Ernest (2015) posited that e-learning is a borderless learning experience to increase tutors and students’ interaction as well as deliver effective teaching and learning content across different platforms, such as smartphones and many more. Supporting this statement, Levina (2016) opined that in recent times, it appears that smartphones, in their various iterations such as Android, are able to make a positive contribution to the learning process of students as well as their overall academic achievement as technology continues its rapid growth.
Consequently, the high surge in senior high school students’ usage of smart phones in and outside the school environment has yielded more harm than good. According to Steven and Okay (2018), the global surge in use of smart phones among post-primary school students has led to an ever-increasing dependency on smartphones because of their embedded functionalities and portability. Adolescents in secondary schools appear to prefer a smartphone over a laptop and personal computers because of the various functionalities, such as entertainment, watching sports, online games, sending emails, chatting, online shopping, social media, and the ability to complete homework (Cha & Seo, 2018; Nayak, 2018). This has resulted in the consistent use of smartphones among students over time, and thus, most students find it difficult to control their use (Bianchi & Phillips, 2005). Given the prevalence of smartphone addiction among students, it is crucial to explore the relationships between smartphones and students’ learning.
Additionally, multiple facets of our day-to-day lives, notably those of students, have been altered as a result of the recent explosion in the use of GSM. On the other hand, it is of the researcher’s observation that the majority of high school students view GSM primarily as a gadget for leisure, social networking, browsing the internet, watching movies, and playing games. This observation is in line with the affirmation of Lepp et al. (2015) who stated that if GSM are primarily used for leisure by students rather than for educational purposes, then they have the potential to interfere with their learning in educational contexts, which is not appealing to their attainment. This is apparently visible in the lives of secondary school students in Nigeria, and has significantly influenced their commitment to studies. This is evident as the majority of them use GSM and recreational apps, making them addicted to them as is prevalent among economic students, which in turn impairs their academic achievement. To support this, Igbaji, Miswaru, and Sadiyya (2017) found that young people are becoming hooked on social media activities these days. As a consequence of this, they quit their studies and divert their attention to conversing with friends on social media through the use of their GSM, even during the teaching and learning process, which in turn makes them less attentive and possibly leads to low academic performance. Furthermore, it is of the researchers’ observation that the majority of secondary school students studying economics in Nigeria have performed poorly, especially within the last decades. This persistent decline in the students’ performance contributes to the curiosity of the researcher to investigate possible causes and the implications. While the aforementioned studies are debatable, there have been relatively few recent studies that have demonstrated the negative effects of student GSM usage on student academic performance, with a focus on government technical secondary schools in Nigeria. As observed by the researcher, the majority of studies conducted in recent times have concentrated on the effect of GSM usage on college university undergraduate students’ academic achievement. In light of this backdrop and in a bid to fill the gap, the researcher seeks to examine the use of GSM and the academic performance of students in Federal Polytechnic Ede.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The primary aim of this study is to investigate the effect of gsm on the academic performance among the polytechnic students (a case study Federal Polytechnic Ede). Specifically, this study seeks to attain the following objectives:
- To examine the impact of GSM usage on students’ learning and classroom concentration.
- To identify the impacts of GSM usage on students academic performance.
- To exams the relationship between GSM and academic performance.
- To make recommendations on the usage of GSM at Federal Polytechnic Ede.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guide this study:
- What are the impact of GSM usage on students’ learning and classroom concentration?
- What are the impacts of GSM usage on students academic performance?
- Does a significant relationship exist between GSM and academic performance?
1.5 Research Hypothesis
The validity of the following null hypotheses will be tested in this study:
- H01: GSM usage has no negative impact on students’ learning and classroom concentration.
- H02: GSM usage has no negative impact on students academic performance.
1.6 Significance/ Justification of the Study
The results of the study will be helpful to many entities, including school officials, teachers, parents, and students. This study will aid the instructors of the school in determining the influence that social media has on their students. As a result, they will be better equipped to educate and raise awareness among their student concerning the potential impact that GSM usage may have on their lives. The study is important to parents because it will inform them of the potential consequences that their children’s use of GSM will have on them. This will allow them to keep a closer eye on how their children use internet facilitated by GSM, which is an important role that the study plays.
The findings of the study will also make it possible for students to become aware that, in addiction to the social advantages of utilizing GSM with it feature, social networking sites, excessive use of these sites can put users at risk for negative effects on their academic pursuit and performance hence the need to adjust to moderate usage of the the device. In a purely empirical sense, the study will contribute to the existing body of knowledge and serve as a reference for teachers and students who are interested in performing more research on a subject that is related to this one.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of the Study
The scope of this study is bordered on the use of GSM, and the academic performance of secondary school students in Federal Polytechnic Ede. The study will further examine the impact of GSM usage on students’ learning and classroom concentration, identify the impacts of GSM usage on students academic performance, exams the relationship between GSM and academic performance, and make recommendations on the usage of GSM at secondary school level. The study is however delimited to Federal Polytechnic Edein Nigeria. And will cover the period of 10years from 2010-2020.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scantiness of literature related to negative impacts of the use of GSM on the academic performance of secondary school students. Thus much time and organization was spent by the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials related to the study. More so, the study is limited in scope focusing on teachers and student in Government Technical secondary school in Nigeria. Therefore findings of this study cannot be used for generalization for other secondary schools in other West African countries which creates a research gap and give room for further studies on this topic.
1.9 Definition of Terms
A cell phone is electronic equipment that converts sound into electrical signals that can be transmitted over distances and then converts received signals back into sounds.
Smart Phone / GSM:
A GSM is a handheld electronic device that provides a connection to a cellular network and the internet.
Academic achievement: This is regarded as the display of knowledge attained or skills, shown in the school subjects such achievements are indicated by test scores or by marks assigned by teachers. It is the school evaluation of students’ classroom work as quantified on the basis of marks or grades.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of gsm on the academic performance among the polytechnic students using federal polytechnic Ede as a case study.The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, recommendations and suggestions for further studies.
5.2 Summary of the Findings
In this study, we examinedthe effect of gsm on the academic performance among the polytechnic students using federal polytechnic Ede as a case study. The study specifically was carried out to examine the impact of GSM usage on students’ learning and classroom concentration, identify the impacts of GSM usage on students academic performance, exams the relationship between GSM and academic performance, and make recommendations on the usage of GSM at secondary school level.
This research is reported in five distinct yet interrelated chapters. In the chapter one we describes the study objectives clearly by stating the motive behind this study. Research hypotheses were developed for testing while the scope of this research was defined as well.
In the chapter two, a review of related and relevant literature were carried out. The concept of , and smart phones, concept of android and GSM, academic performance, use of GSM in the classroom learning etc.were reviewed from the perspective of Ifeanyi and Chukwuere (2018), Imran and Abbas (2020),Darko-Adjei, (2019); Campbell (2016),Ebiye (2015), Gowthami and VenkataKrishnaKumar (2016), Tikoria & Agariya, (2017) etc.
The study was anchored on technology acceptance model (TAM) by Fred Davis and Richard Bagozzi (1989) and user and gratification theory byKatz, (1959)
Empirical works were also reviewed in the review. Notable works such as studies conducted by Fawareh and Jusoh (2017), and Ahmed et al., 2020, were reviewed. Further studies carried out by Nayak (2018) and Serdang Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia and Mothar, (2015) were also recognized.
Adopting the survey research design, responses were obtained from secondary school students in Government Technical SecondaryNigeria using the convenience sampling method selected 261 participants as the sample size participants. Responses received were analyzed using frequency tables and Relative Importance Index. While the hypotheses were tested using the ANOVA statistical tool SPSS v23.
Our findings from this study revealed that;
- The use of GSM by students’ has hampered their learning and classroom concentration as it distract them during learning in general and it makes them to often loss concentration in class while teaching is going on.
- There a significant relationship existing between GSM and academic performance.
- The use of GSM usage has also affected students academic performance as it leads to loss of concentration, loss of interest in class on a subject, makes them to do less school work, leads to drop of students’ grade, sometimes make students not to do their school assignments, and deprive them from getting enough sleep.
Inline with the findings of this study, the researcher proffer the following recommendations;
- Academic institutions should also implement programmes that can restrict students from using social network sites and applications while in the classroom.
- The students should only be allowed to use their smartphones when the teacher tells or recommends them to do so; for example, to access their academic materials or something of the sort.
- School representative council should give massive education to students on the advantages and disadvantages of using s as well as how best to use it.
- Teachers should communicate more with the students through this medium. This could be achieved by creating chat groups that can help every one of the students and teachers to stay connected in order to share information.
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