The Effect Of Government Policy On Housing Problem In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Lagos State Ministry)

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The Effect Of Government Policy On Housing Problem In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Lagos State Ministry)


Abstract


The problems of housing encompasses the availability of housing units which has resulted into congested homes and community and resulted in the ever increasing pressure on the infrastructural facilities. The main issue in this study relates to the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. The sample was drawn based on judgmental sampling approach and data was collected by means of questionnaires from (100) respondents.

The data collected from questionnaire were analysed, summarized and interpreted using the total scores, simple percentages and Chi-square. The hypothesis was done at one percent level of significance. The result show that government policies have effect on sustainable housing delivery and increase in population affect sustainable housing delivery. Based on the findings it was recommended that ggovernment should build model housing estates for the low income people and pursue an aggressive home ownership policy with very good home ownership programs to back it up.


Tables of Contents


  • Page
  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment.
  • Abstract

Chapter One

Introduction

  • 1.0 Background of the Study
  • 1.1 Statement of the problem
  • 1.2 Objective of the Study
  • 1.3 Research Questions
  • 1.4 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitations of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Housing Policies in Nigeria
  • 2.2 Urbanization challenges and housing delivery in Nigeria
  • 2.3 Urbanization challenges and Urban Housing situation in Nigeria.
  • 2.4 Appraisal of official intervention in housing delivery policies in Nigeria
  • 2.5 Effective Housing Policy for Sustainable development in Nigeria.
  • 2.6 Housing delivery efforts in Nigeria
  • 2.7 Current housing delivery approach
  • 2.8 Public housing delivery strategies in Nigeria
  • 2.9 Government interventions in housing provision

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sampling, Procedure and Sample size
  • 3.3 Data collection instrument and validation
  • 3.5 Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

Presentation and Data Analysis

  • 4.1 Profile of Respondents
  • 4.2 Presentation and Analysis of data according to Research questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.2 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary of Findings
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendations
  • 5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.0 Background of the Study

Housing is a word that is common to many societies but most widely misunderstood especially its technical definition or meaning. Housing is therefore viewed not only as a shelter together with its supporting infrastructures but more comprehensively as an evolutionary and participating process. Housing is a complex system of interactions between institutions and residents which give shape to human settlements. Housing comprises more than four walls and a roof, it also includes supporting infrastructure such as water supply, electric power, roads, shopping facilities, recreational facilities, a good and enabling environment.

Furthermore, institutions such as the housing corporations, mortgage financial institutions, developers, estate agents, buyers and sellers all make up the housing industry. Housing affects all individual in any society including the homeless and the destitute. Housing can also be described as accommodation with all the necessary ancillary services with it. Housing is one of the 3 most significant in the sustainability of human existence with considerable economic, social, cultural and personal importance. The production of housing has been influenced largely by policies, innovation and the ability to sustain the environment (Ezengu 2000).

Housing encompasses all social services and utilities that make life meaningful and the environment habitable. The problems that affect readily housing delivery in Nigeria are enormous and very complex. These problems in most of our urban cities in Nigeria encompasses the availability of housing units both in quality and the number available which in turn has resulted into congested homes and community and the resultant of this is the ever increasing pressure on the infrastructural facilities which will rapidly deteriorate. The situation in the rural area is even worse where the quality of housing is very poor and very low in quantity. Infrastructure like power, roads, water, drainage and every other constituent of housing is readily unavailable.

In Nigeria today, over 7 out of every 10 people live below the minimum poverty level and 9 of every 10 are in the low income group therefore these people cannot provide housing for themselves; they then are rendered homeless or live in poor housing. The government had in place various policies as regarding housing delivery to the public but poor implementation has made it impossible to meet up with the 12-14 million housing units needed ( Balogun, 2007 ).

Housing policy is written document which usually comprises specific objectives, strategies and programs aimed at solving the housing problems or meeting with the ever-increasing housing needs and demands of a country. Housing policy should contain the government’s views, policy objectives, strategies and programs all aimed at solving the housing problems of a particular country. Housing policies usually go together with housing programs. Housing policies are like principles while husing programs are like practic (Ezenagu,1998). Again, it can be said that husing policies are like theories while programs are like practical; both of which are aimed at solving various husing problems bedeviling a particular country or society.


1.1 Statement of the Problem

It has been observed that majority of the people are living in poor housing or totally homeless even in urban centre, not to talk of the rural areas. Housing in Nigeria are generally poor and very low in quality and quantity despite all governmental policies to provide housing to the public.


1.2 Objective of the Study

The general objective of this study is to present the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. The specific objectives of this study are to:

  1. Examine the effect of government policy on sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.
  2. Identify problems hindering housing delivery in Nigeria.
  3. Examine the effect of increase in population on sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.
  4. Examine the important of quality housing delivery to living standard of people.

1.3 Research Questions

Based on the stated objectives of the study, the following research questions have been formulated:

  1. What are the effect government policies on sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria?
  2. What are the problems hindering housing delivery in Nigeria?
  3. To what extent does increase in population affect sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria?
  4. What are the important of quality housing delivery to living standard of people?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  1. Hi: Government policies have effect on sustainable housing delivery.
    H0: Government policies have no effect on sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.
  2. Hi: Increase in population affect sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.
    H0: Increase in population does not affect sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.

1.5 Significance of the Study

With the phenomenal contribution of good housing delivery to the standard of living in Nigeria. There has not been much research on the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria, the study hopes to fill the gap.

Specifically, government, educational institution, housing development company and the general public are likely to benefit from this research work.


1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study

The research work emphasize on the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. The study therefore is restricted to Lagos State.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

In a study like this especially in this part of the world where awareness on research is just coming up, constraints are expected. Specific to this research, the constraints include: dearth of good materials. Even where the materials are available they are commercialized and very expensive and difficult to come by. Time to do a very tasking research of this nature and finance also posed a substantial constraint.


1.8 Definition of Terms

House:

This is a building made for people to live in usually for one family or a family and lodgers. More technically, a house is a building or structural edifice comprising of walls with foundation, floors, roofs e.t.c.

Housing:

This is a complex system of interactions between institutions and residents which give shape to human settlements.

Housing policy:

This is a written document which usually comprises specific objectives, strategies and programs aimed at solving the housing problems or meeting with the ever-increasing housing needs and demands of a country.

Housing Market:

This a is a market where housing goods and service are sold and bought by virtue of their being demanded and supplied

Housing Quality:

This the state, nature or standard of housing with respect to acceptable standards.

Housing Finance:

Finance literally means finance for housing or real estate development. It also means or includes the source of the finance, the management of the finance and all various operations on the source, management, procurement and utilization as well as repayment of such finance.


Chapter Five


Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendations

This chapter highlights conclusion and recommendations to the study on the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. The chapter summarizes the findings and form bases for conclusion reached, upon which recommendations were made appropriately.


5.3 Summary of Findings

  1. Government policies have effect on sustainable housing delivery.
  2. Increase in population affect sustainable housing delivery in Nigeria.
  3. Housing affects all individual in any society including the homeless and the destitute.
  4. The production of housing has been influenced largely by policies of government.
  5. Problems in most of urban cities in Nigeria encompasses the availability of housing units both in quality and quantity.
  6. Infrastructure like power, roads, water, drainage and every other constituent of housing is readily unavailable.
  7. The situation in the rural area is even worse where the quality of housing is very poor and very low in quantity.
  8. In Nigeria, housing is typically financed through a number of institutional like bank and Mortgage banks

On the whole, the findings show that policies of government affect housing in Nigeria.


5.4 Conclusion

What Nigerians need to survive the wounds of near-homelessness include good governance, favorable government policy, increased access to land, credit, affordable housing and environmentally sound and serviced human settlements. Government should therefore undertake steps by all appropriate means and to the fullest of funds at his disposal to achieve progressively the tenets of adequate shelter for Nigerians especially the vulnerable group. This must be done without discrimination as to status, sex, tribe and without fear or favour.


5.4 Recommendations

This research work has analysed the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. The researcher suggested the following recommendations:

  1. Emphasis should be placed on providing low and medium income housing units in Nigeria using earth blocks and intermediate technology.
  2. To avoid the takeover of these houses by the high income group, national or state monitoring groups made up of NGOs, government institutions and other public and private stakeholders should be established to monitor progress and make sure that target populations benefit.
  3. The use of sample walls using stabilized blocks, reinforced concrete in beams and lintels and combining this with corrugated roofing sheet should be encouraged as this would reduce construction cost by about 60%.
  4. Government can pursue rent control measures that will be practicable and result oriented so as to effectively control the problem of high rents.
  5. Urban renewal measures, programs and projects should be given adequate attention by the various government of the federation.
  6. Government should pursue a dynamic mortgage finance and credit facilities policy such that such finances would be within reach of low income people, at very moderate lending terms including below market interest rate.
  7. Government can build model housing estates for the low income people where they can buy houses of their own at very liberal conditions.
  8. Government should pursue an aggressive home ownership policy with very good home ownership programs to back it up.
  9. The federal government should as a matter of policy set aside a reasonable percentage of the country’s gross national product or gross domestic product or its annual budget for housing. This will ensure a steady supply of funds and will boost the housing sector.

5.5 Suggestion for Further Studies

This study has been limited to the effect of government policy on housing problem in Nigeria. Further studies can be extended to other states so that generalize conclusions could be drawn.

Lastly, the sample size should be increased so as to allow for more views on the subject matters.


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