The Effect Of Garcinia Kola Extract (Bitter Kola) On High Blood Glucose (Diabetes Mellitus) And Serum Cholesterol Level In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rat

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The Effect Of Garcinia Kola Extract (Bitter Kola) On High Blood Glucose (Diabetes Mellitus) And Serum Cholesterol Level In Alloxan Induced Diabetic Albino Rat


Abstract


Diabetes mellitus is a deliberating disorder in which strick glycemic control and prevention of associated complications are very important. In view of the increasing interest in the use of plant source for the treatment of diabetes mellitus, the effect of Garcinia kola extract in blood glucose and serum cholesterol level on alloxan induced diabetic albino rat were investigated.

In this research work sixteen albino rat of wistar strain were divided into four groups of four rat in each group. Group one serves as negative control which were non diabetic, and they receives normal poultry feed and 3% tween 80, group two and three which serves as the test were induced alloxan monohydrate to make them diabetic and they received 200mg/kg body weight and 500mg/kg bosdy weight of the ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola respectively and group four serves as standard group, they were induced alloxan monohydrate to be diabetic and they received 100mg/kg of standard drug (Glucoghage 500mg/kg).

Alloxan monohydrate caused significant increase in the level of blood glucose, the level of blood glucose were monitored in test and standard groups after oral administration of the garcinia kola extract. The Blood glucose significantly lowered in the test groups than that of the standard drug, and there is also a decrease in serum cholesterol of the test groups than that of the standard group. This shows that Garcinia kola extract offered significant anti-diabetic and anti cholesterol effect in the rats.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Aim /objective
  • 1.3 Significance of study
  • 1.4 Statement of problem
  • 1.5 Limitations of study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 History of Garcinia kola
  • 2.1.1 Ecology of the plant garcinia kola
  • 2.1.2 Importance of garcinia kola:
  • 2.1.3 Pharmacological uses of bitter kola
  • 2.1.4 Phytochemical compounds that have been isolated from garcinia kola seed include
  • 2.1.5 Activities of the Phytochemical Compounds of Garcinia Kola
  • 2.1.6 The medicinal properties of garcinia kola can be classified under
  • 2.1.7 Health benefits of garcinia kola improving lung function
  • 2.2.0 Description of diabetes mellitus
  • 2.2.1 Diabetes and its significance
  • 2.2.2 Types of diabetes mellitus
  • 2.2.3 Types 2 diabetes mellitus
  • 2.2.4 Causes diabetes mellitus
  • 2.2.5 Impacts of diabetes
  • 2.2.6 Acute complication of diabetes mellitus
  • 2.2.7 Acute Complication of Diabetes Mellitus
  • 2.3.0 Description of glucose

Chapter Three

3.0 Materials and Method

  • 3.1 Materials/apparatus used for this study
  • 3.1.2 Reagent, chemicals and solvent
  • 3.1.3 Experimental animal
  • 3.2.0 Methodology
  • 3.2.1. Collection and Preparation of Plant Material
  • 3.2.2 Preparation of the Garcinia kola
  • 3.2.3 Method of extraction of garcinia kola seed
  • 3.2.4 Method of ethanolic extraction
  • 3.2.5 Induction of experimental diabetes mellitus
  • 3.2.6 Experimental design
  • 3.2.7 Determination of blood glucose level
  • 3.2.8 Statistical analysis
  • 3.3.0 Enzyme assay
  • 3.3.1 Clinical significance
  • 3.3.2 Assay principle

Chapter Four

4.0 Result

  • 4.1 Percentage extractive yield
  • 4.2 Serum Cholesterol
  • 4.3 The effect of different doses on diabetic condition and serum cholesterol level

Chapter Five

5.0. Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation and Reference

  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES 
  • APPENDIX 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Diabetes mellitus is the most important disease involving the endocrine pancreas. Its major Manifestations are disordered metabolism and inappropriate hyperglycemia or high level of blood glucose. Despite all the conventional drugs presently available, the progressive deterioration of diabetes control is such that treatment is still insufficient. Insufficiency of current therapies for the treatment of diabetes, combined with both a lack of trust in conventional medical treatment and an inability of the economy to absorb the cost of pharmaceuticals have created a public interest in dietary supplements.

Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that involve problem with the hormone insulin (Enrich, 2000). It is characterized by hyperglycemia, increase protein breakdown, pyuria, weight loss, coma etc. Several fractions such as high calorie diet intake, age, lack of exercise, alcohol consumption and genetic predisposition have been linked with diabetic disease (Enrich, 2000). Diabetes mellitus is among the most common disorder in developed and developing countries.

The disease is increasing rapidly in many part of the world. In 2000, according to WHO (World Health Organization),at least 171 million people worldwide suffer from from diabetes which correspond to 2.8% of world population. This figure is expected to double in the year 2030. Hyperglycemia in diabetic patients is associated with alternation in glucose and lipid metabolism and modification in liver enzyme levels (Jenson and Stenders,1998). Diabetes mellitus has been recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular Diseases(CVD), such as stroke, heart attarck, atherosclerosis (Adaramoye and Forambi, 2005). About 75% of death among men and 57% of death among women with diabetes mellitus are attributable to cardiovascular diseases.

Garcinia kola otherwise called bitter kola belongs to the family Guttiferae . It is found mainly in the tropical rain forest region of the central and West Africa . It is predominant in the rainforest belt of southern Nigeria. The seed are edible and are consumed as adjuvant to the true kola (Kola nitida) and for medicinal purposes. Garcinia kola is regaSrded as a wonderful kola because every part of it has a medicinal importance. Garcinia kola is used in folklore remedies for the treatment of ailments such as liver disorders, diarrhea, laryngitis, bronchitis and gonorrhea . It is also used in the treatment of jaundice, high fever and purgative. Garcinia kola is masticatory and used to prevent and relieve colic, chest colds, and cough and can as well be use to treat headache . Garcinia kola has also anti-fungal and ant-microbial effect (Adaramoye, et al., 2002).


1.2 Aim / Objective

This research aimed at knowing the effect of garcinia kola S extract on blood glucose and serum cholesterol level in alloxan induced albino rats.


1.3 Significance of Study

Due to increase rate of diabetes mellitus, this present research work was carried out to circulate the knowledge of medical impact of Garciara kola seedon blood glucose and serum cholesterol levels and to discover an alternative way of treatind diabetes without conventional drugs.

Most times ethnomedical practitioners administer this plant extract being ignorant of the effect it may have in human body.


1.4 Statement of Problem

Lack of finance and unavailability of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs has lead to mortality and morbidity in diabetic patients.

Continuous use of synthetic anti-diabetic drugs causes side effect and toxicity. The need to develop an alternative method of treating diabetes mellitus without side effect and toxicity is required. These statement thereby prompt the need to research an alternative means of treating diabetes mellitus with low cost, no side effect and also no toxicity.


1.5 Limitations of Study

This research work is limited on the anti-diabetic effect of Garcinia kola seed extract on blood glucose and serum cholesterol due to lack of money to further the research, time factor and insufficient research equipments.


Chapter Five


5.0. Discussion, Conclusion, Recommendation and Reference

5.1 Discussion

Diabetes mellitus is a chronic disorder in metabolism of carbohydrate, protein and fat but mostly in carbohydrate due to absolute or relative deficiency of insulin with/without varying degree of insulin resistance.

Also it may be defined as a disease conditions where the body either produces little insulin/ceases to produce insulin or become progressively resistance to its action.

In this research study, induction of alloxan monohydrate elevated the blood glucose level of the experimental animal, by destroying the pancreatic cells that regulate/synthesizes the production of glucose or the production of insulin in the body.(Thoma Ibeabuchi and Noronha 2006). At different oral administration of ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola, there is a reduction in the blood glucose level, the concentration of the serum level also decreases.

Cholesterol is a lipid , waxy steroid found in the membrane. It can dissolve and travel in the water-based blood stream at exceedingly small concentration. Since cholesterol is insoluble in blood.

Oral administration of aqueous extract of Garcinia kola for a period of 4 days, at a dose of 10 mg/kg body weight to normal rats, 500mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight respectively significantly reduced the blood glucose level of the experimental animals .

The reduction in glucose concentration after the period of treatment is indicative that the plant has possible hypoglycemic properties. This is however in accordance with the findings of Tita et al. (2001), which shows that Garrcinia kola have anti-diabetic properties.

Also, Iwu (2003) reported that the seed of Garcinia kola has anti-diabetic properties Thus; it is suggestive of the confirmation of its glucose lowering effect or property. The treatment also caused a significant decrease in the serum Cholesterol(Table 3). Abnormal high daietry cholesterol which lead to hypercholesterolemia is strongly associated with cardiovascular diseases and promotes Diabetes mellitus.

This research study shows that Garcinia kola extract could be used as an effective treatment in Diabetes mellitus patients.

Findings from this research also shows that traditional herbs were easily accessible.


5.2 Conclusion

The result of this research study have demonstrated that the ethanolic extract of Garcinia kola seed has a pronounced blood glucose-lowering potential and reduction in the serum cholesterol level (table 3) in alloxan-induced diabetic albino rat comparable to that of standard anti-diabetic drugs.


5.3 Recommendation

From the observation reveals in this study, Garcinia kola is therefore recommended for diabetic patients who have a doubting mind about the effectiveness of this plant in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. In other words Garcinia kola is a confirmed anti-diabetic agent.


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