The Effect Of Free Education On The Academic Performance Of Students In Secondary School
This work analyses the effect of free education on the academic performance of students in secondary schools using six selected schools in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area of Imo State as a case study.
- Chapter one gives a general background of the study on the concept of education, how important education is and also laws governing educational practices at federal, state and local government.
- Chapter two deals on the review of related literatures. It explains the concept and system of education, history of free education in Nigeria, financing education as aided by the world bank as well as benefits of free education.
- Chapter three shows the research methodology employed while chapter four analyses and interprets the data obtained mainly through the administration of questionnaire.
- Chapter five summarizes the whole research work and also gives the researchers conclusion and recommendation
1.1. Background of the Study
Education is of paramount importance in a growing nation. It is the best legacy a nation can give to her citizens especially the youth. This is because the development of any nation or community depends largely on the quality of education of such a nation. Not only is education the greatest force that can be used to bring about redress, it is also the greatest investment that a nation can make for the quick development of its economic, political, sociological and human resources. (Nigeria, National policy on Education.) The very process of learning to read and write should be made an opportunity for acquiring information that can immediately be used to improve living standards. Education is viewed in different perspective by different authors.
Oyakan (2000) opined education as the aggregate of all process by which a child or young adult develops the abilities, attitudes and other forms of behaviour which are of positive values to the society in which he lives. Here education is regarded as the totality of all form of brilliant ideas, visible skills and desirable value orientations that can nurture individuals into responsible competent citizen, such educated men and women would use their competence, experience and vision of a good society to create wealth for nation building. Nigeria like any other developing nations has witnessed military rule for a long time and aborted civilian administrations which necessitated the promulgation of decrees, edicts and laws concerning educational practices at federal, state and local government levels. The inconsistent continuation of government due to coup detat de-emphasized the continuity in the implementation of educational laws and policies since 1970’s till the present time. This generally laid the foundation of fallen standard in education at the primary and secondary school levels. (Shittu 2004). According to Olutu (1994) looking for means of survival, the nation has evolved series of socio-economic and educational measures and policies such as Structural Adjustment Programs (SAP), Austerity measures, Universal Primary Education (UPE), Universal Basic Education (UBE) and Devaluation of the Naira. These measures have not improved the social-economic and educational status of families (olutu 1994). Also many rural and sub urban dwellers can no longer pay the schools fees of their wards. These ugly situations have promoted young school students to dropout of school to engage in subsistence farming and become housemaids or engage in other menial jobs to support their academic pursuit. Hence many students have since taken schooling as a secondary assignment and school attendance on rotational basis. The resultant problem posed by this is poor academic performance in school examination like National Examination Council (NECO) and West African Examination Council (WAEC). This trend is posing huge problems to parents, governments, political parties and stakeholders in education.
1.2. Statement of the Problem
This research arose as a result of increase number of students, increased absenteeism, and differences in the nature, performance and characteristic of students experienced since the introduction of free education.
1.3 Objective of the Study
The main objective of this study is to know the reason for embarking on free education and its influence on the academic performance of secondary school students in NGOR OKPALA LOCAL GOVERNMENT AREA, IMO STATE.
The specific objectives are:-
- To know the effect of free education on the academic performance of students.
- To know the influence of free education on the enrolment rate of secondary school students.
- To ascertain whether free education make student lazy
1.4 Research Hypotheses
For the successful completion of the study, the following research hypotheses were formulated by the researcher;
- H0: There is no significant effect of free education on the academic performance of students in secondary school
H1: There is significant effect of free education on the academic performance of students in secondary school
- H02: There is no influence of free education on the enrolment rate of secondary school students.
H2: There is influence of free education on the enrolment rate of secondary school students.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study will be used to formulate further educational policies by the government to adopt in order to increase the academic performance of students in secondary school. The result can also be used by curriculum planners, educators and some government agencies in determining the population of those above or below the working age.
On the other hand, the study will equally help the parents to have their children educated with lesser financial burden.
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The study focuses on the influence of free education on the academic performance of secondary school in Ngor Okpala Local Government Area, Imo State. This study was limited to only six schools due to time, energy and cost.
The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
c) Organizational Privacy:
Limited Access to the selected auditing firm makes it difficult to get all the necessary and required information concerning the activities.
1.7 Definition of Terms
Free education is education funded through taxation or charitable organizations rather than tuition funding. Many models of free higher education have been
Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has achieved their short or long-term educational goals. Cumulative GPA and completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain the effect of free education on the academic performance of students in secondary school. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challengesof free education on the academic performance of students in secondary school
This study was on the effect of free education on the academic performance of students in secondary school. Three objectives were raised which included:To know the effect of free education on the academic performance of students, to know the influence of free education on the enrolment rate of secondary school students, to ascertain whether free education make student lazy. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of selected secondary schools in Ngor okpala local government of Imo state. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made principals, vice principals administration, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
The study concluded that the school environment in Ngor Okpala local government of Imo state is presently under pressure from the high number of learners. The methodology currently used in secondary schools education in the division is not suitable in delivering knowledge to the students this is as result of a high percentage of untrained teachers in the division. The quality of secondary school education is declined as a result of unequal increment in equipments and facilities. Most of the teachers agree that it is important that education taught in secondary schools be considerate of all learners. Teachers are indifferent on whether the methodologies they use in delivering knowledge to the students suits the students needs.
In view of the various factors that emerged from this study, the researcher made the following recommendations:
- The community at large should support construction of more school by providing land and lobour to reduce high enrollment rates in the existing schools in the Ngor Okpala local government of Imo state.
- The government should employ enough teachers so as to cater for the rising number of secondary school students in the District.
- The existing curriculum should be reviewed so as to cater for all the needs of secondary school students so as to adequately and favorably serve them by introducing subjects such as life skills.
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