Effect Of Forest Resources Exploitation On Economic Well-Being Of Farming Households

Project and Seminar Material for Agricultural Engineering AE

Effect Of Forest Resources Exploitation On Economic Well-Being Of Farming Households


Abstract


This study analyzed the effect of forest resources exploitation on economic well-being of farming households. In carrying out the study, five specific objectives and a hypothesis were developed to guide the study. Multi-stage sampling technique was used to select 155 rural households from eight Local Government Areas (LGAs) in Enugu State. Data for the study were obtained from primary source using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistic, multiple regression and F-test were the statistical tools used to analyze the data collected. The results showed that the rural households in the study area engaged in other livelihood activities alongside harvesting of forest resources which was their dominant occupation, to diversify their income. This activity was dominated by male headed households (54.8%). The average age of the household heads was 50years and their level of education was low (mean of 4 years). Also, they had large family size (mean of 7 persons) and many years (mean of 20years) of experience in forest resources extraction activities. They walk an average distance of 10 kilometres from their homestead to the forest. While their average annual income was ₦53,202 average annual forest income was ₦29,261. The forest resources commonly harvested, used and marketed in the study area included bush meat, fuelwood, oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla), bamboo, timber, palm wine, cashew (Anacardium occidentale), oil palm, ogbono(Irvingia gabonensis), mushroom, honey, icheku(Landophia duleisvar), broom, uziza(Piper guinense), utazi (Gongronema latifolain), kolanut (Cola nitida), ube oji(Dacryolis edulis), okazi (Gnetum spp), snail among others. These products which were unevenly distributed in the area were major source of income, food, cosmetics, medicinal materials, construction materials, cooking energy among others. The result of the analysis of the contributions of different sources of income to household income indicated that on the average, forest income share of the total household income was relatively high (55%). The result of the regression analysis showed that gender of household head and household size had a positive and significant (P< 0.01 and P< 0.05 respectively) influence on forest income while annual income had a negative and significant (P< 0.01) influence on forest income. The F-test confirmed that socio-economic factors had a positive and significant (P< 0.000) effect on forest income of the rural households. Identified factors that constrained the accessing and utilization of forest resources were deforestation (3.93), storage and processing facilities (3.29), poor means of transportation (3.98), lack of extension contacts (3.98), bush burning (3.89), fear of forest and wild animals (2.78), poor harvesting technique (2.65), deterioration (3.08), extinction of plant species (3.70) and insect pest and diseases (3.75). Policies that will regulate forest resources exploitation should be developed to lower household dependence on forest based income.


Table of Contents


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Problem Statement
  • 1.3 Objectives of the Study
  • 1.4 Hypothesis of the Study
  • 1.5 Justification of the Study

Chapter Two:

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Contributions of forest resources to household food security
  • 2.3 Forest resources in rural employment and income generation
  • 2.4 Contributions of forest resources to household health
  • 2.5 Contributions of forest to household energy
  • 2.6 Contribution of forest to environment
  • 2.7 Socio-economic Factors that Influence the Contribution of Forest to Household Income
  • 2.8 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Methodology

  • 3.1 The Study Area
  • 3.2 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.4 Data Analysis

Chapter Four:

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Socio-economic Characteristics of the Respondents
  • 4.2 Commonly Harvested Forest Products and their Uses
  • 4.3 Contributions of Different Sources of Income to Total Household Income
  • 4.4 Socioeconomic factors influencing household income from forest resources
  • 4.5 Constraints faced by rural households in accessing and utilizing forest resources

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • 5.4 Contributions to Knowledge
  • 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

According to FAO (2010), a forest can be defined as a land with a tree canopy cover of more than 10%, area of more than 0.5ha and a minimum tree height of 5m. It also includes unstocked areas, forest used for purposes of production, protection, or conservation, forest stand on agricultural lands and rubber plantations and cork oak stands (FAO, 2010). However, stands of trees established primarily for agricultural production are not included as forest (FAO, 2010).

Nigeria is endowed with abundant forest tree resources covering about 35% of the total land area (Isichei, 2005). The forest is also rich in biodiversity, found in various vegetative types such as the swamp forest which include Rhizophora,Avecennia and Lagunculania racemosa, tropical rain forest which include Sterculiaceae species and savanna (guinea, Sudan and Sahel) which include Lophira lancolata, Terminalia glaucescens, Afzelia Africana (Mahogany bean tree) (Oriola, 2009). Generally, forest resources are typically divided into two main categories – timber and Non-Timber Forest Products (NTFPs). The timber category usually includes sawn wood, pulp and panel boards. The NTFP category includes everything else, from roots, fruits and (sometimes) fish and game or ‘bushmeat’ used for foods, through a range of medicinal plants, resins and essential oils valuable for their chemical components, to fibres such as bamboos, rattans, fuelwood and other palms used for weaving and structural applications (Belcher, 2003).

The importance of forests cannot be overemphasized. They make numerous contributions directly and indirectly to sustainable livelihood and well-being of billions of people across the world through the provision of ecosystem services including environmental services, wild food, fodder, fiber, wood and medicine (Katerere et al., 2009). This is particularly so in subSaharan Africa where most countries have large rural populations that depend directly or indirectly on natural resources and small scale farming for their livelihood ( Katerere et al., 2009; Agwu, Anyanwu, Uduogu & Akinnagbe, 2008). It also contributes to economic and social development through environmental services, formal trade in timber, and NTFPs, as well as through their safety net, spiritual, cultural, and aesthetic values (Katerere et al., 2009). It is estimated that about 1 billion of the world’s poorest people rely in some way on forests for their livelihoods (Agrawal et al., 2013; Arnold, Powell, Shanley & Sunderland, 2011). Indigenous population in Nigeria have benefited historically from forest resources. On the average, forest resources make up about 39% of the livelihoods of rural populations in Nigeria (Onyekuru & Marchant, 2014). Some forest plant species that improves the rural economies of Nigeria and Enugu State in particular include vegetables, mushroom, palm fruit, locust bean, mango fruit, chewing-stick, fuelwood, timber, ginger, alligator pepper, ropes, honey, palm wine, bamboo and grasses and various species of animal including snails, bee products (honey, beewax and pollen), grass cutter (Olaniyi, Akintonde, & Adetumbi, 2013; Eboh, Ujah, & Nzeh, 2009; Nzeh & Eboh, 2008; Osemeobo & Ujor, 1999).

Forest products activities (collection, processing, and marketing of forest products) offer employment and generate income for millions of rural and urban poor worldwide. These activities provides additional income to farmers in rural areas including forest dwellers, the landless and small holders and urban dwellers who do not have job (Aiyeloja, & Oyebade, 2011). According to Duong (2008) forest-based activities in developing countries including Nigeria mostly in the area of NTFPs, provide an equivalent of 17 million full-time jobs in the formal sector and another 30 million in the informal sector, as well as 13- 35% of all rural non-farm employment. Forest resources provide a wide range of raw materials and inputs for a diverse array of rural enterprise and large-scale industrial processing in Nigeria including sawmills, plywood, veneer, particle board, match factories and, pulp and paper mills (Oriola, 2009). At the rural level some forest products are collected and processed into vegetable oil, chewing stick, soap, wine, charcoal and musical instruments and sold for household income (Osemeobo, 2005). Forest products collected daily accounted for 94% of total income of 36% of rural population in southeastern Nigeria in 1996 (Nweze & Igbokwe, 2000). Harvesting and marketing of bushmeat and snails are major income generating activity almost all year round in the high forest zones of Eastern and Western Nigeria while in the savanna zone of the central and northern Nigeria, honey, fuel-wood, locust-bean seeds, gum Arabic and charcoal making generate a lot of income to the rural dwellers (Onuche, 2011). In an overview of case studies, Vedeld, Angelsen, Sjaastad, and Kogugabe (2004) found that forest products contributes between 20% and 40% of total income of households in forest areas.

Forest products have attracted considerable global interest in recent years due to increasing recognition of their contribution to household food security. About 80% of the population of the developing world use forest products to meet their health and nutritional needs (UN, 2002). They are sources of food products used to supplement agricultural products. Leaves, fruits, seeds, nuts, animals, roots, tubers and rhizome add variety, essential vitamins, minerals, protein, calories and increases palatability of main staple food (FAO, 2005). They are also nibbled while working in fields or herding. In addition to these supplementary roles, forest products are used extensively to meet dietary shortfalls, bridging the hunger period that occurs when stored food supplies are dwindling and the next harvest is yet to begin and also during periods of floods, droughts, famines, wars, frosts or disease leading to crop failure or death of livestock, unanticipated and large increase in cost of staple foods and to pay annual school fees (Shackleton & Shackleton, 2004; FAO, 2005).

Recently, there has been a noticeable shift from orthodox ‘western’ medicine to greater use of traditional (herbal) medicines in many African countries and indeed worldwide (Akunyili, 2003). More than 90% of Nigerians in rural areas and over 40% in urban areas, depend partly and wholly on traditional medicine (Osemeobo & Ujor, 1999; Bisong & Ajake, 2001). In addition to the fact that millions of people depend on medicinal plants for household health, commercial harvesting of medicinal plants may be one of the few opportunities for paid employment or for earning supplementary income in the rural areas. Furthermore, divination, religious ceremonies, festivals and entertainments are performed using forest products (Osemeobo, 1993).

One of the most exploited forest products for subsistence and generation of income is fuelwood. World Commission on Forests and Sustainable Development [WCFSD] (1998) reported that fuelwood and charcoal make up 56% of global wood production, and approximately 90% of this is produced in developing countries. According to Onuche (2011) more than 80% of the rural inhabitants depend directly on wood energy for cooking and preservation of foods and food accessories such as bush-meat. Although, the exploitation of firewood is done primarily as a source of energy to the rural households in Nigeria, it also contributes to their economic wellbeing. This is so because fuelwood collectors also gather fuelwood for sale in nearby peri-urban and urban areas to generate income.

The use of forest resources and products for both subsistence and income are particularly important to poorer households and women in rural communities (Neumann & Hirsch, 2000; Cavendish, 2000; Bishop & Scoones, 1994). Women and children are typically the ones that collect and sell fuelwood, forest foods and medicinal plants and make handicrafts (Agyemang 1994; Bishop & Scoones, 1994). In south-eastern Nigeria, forest resources accounted for over 53% of average household income for the poor while for the average and the rich, it contributed 36% and 21% of their income, respectively (Fonta & Ayuk, 2013). Bisong and Ajake (2001) found that women in southern Nigeria depend heavily on forest products.

There are also indirect contributions of forest resources to rural dwellers. These include their various roles in the ecosystem such as pollination of useful plant and dispersal of seeds by insects, birds and animals in the forest (Onuche, 2011). Forest trees play an essential role in biogeochemical cycles, improve soil fertility, control erosions, provide watershed, fix dune and rehabilitate eroded terrain (Oriola, 2009; Pataki, Heather, Elizaveta & Stephanie, 2011). These various contributions ensure that the ecosystem can continue to supply the various goods and services people depend on for sustainable livelihood. Although these indirect uses are often not easily quantifiable, yet their contributions to human welfare are no doubt enormous. Thus forest resources are useful tools for tackling poverty and food security challenges of rural economies.


1.2 Problem Statement

In Nigeria, poverty has become endemic, affecting social, political and economic aspects of peoples’ lives (Enugu State Poverty Reduction Strategy [PRS] Report, 2004). The Enugu State Poverty Reduction Strategy Report (2004) indicated that almost 70% of the Nigerian populations live below the poverty line. Also, about 69.8% of Nigerians reside in rural areas and two-third of them are farmers who belong to those categorized as extreme poor (Ingawa, 2001). Farming as a livelihood option is inherently risky and prone to myriads of shocks, including seasonal fluctuations (Delacote, 2010). Given the poverty situations in these rural communities and uncertainties associated with traditional agricultural practice, rural households need to maintain diversified sources of income to ensure household food security, reduce poverty and vulnerability among others (Ajani & Igbokwe, 2013). One of the strategies for achieving this is collection and marketing of forest products. Forest products are important both for their direct subsistence value and for their contributions to household cash income (Neumann & Hirsch, 2000).
Collection and marketing of forest products is a traditional source of household income and livelihood sustenance in rural areas in Nigeria and Enugu State in particular. They are exploited mostly by the rural poor who often fall back to or rely largely on them to meet their food and income needs. Despite its immense value, availability and accessibility of these products are threatened by urbanization, infrastructure development, residential construction, population growth and expansion of agricultural crop cultivation (Nzeh, Eboh, & Nweze, 2015). Evidence of these pressures is the growing degradation of both community and state forests. In addition, deforestation is threatening rural household incomes from, and consumption of, nonwood forest products (NWFPs) (FOS-NLSS, 2005). Davies (2002) and Mainka and Trivedi (2002) noted that depletion of forest resources will exacerbate poverty. As such, neglecting the depletion of forest resources in Enugu State may deepen poverty.

Although our level of awareness and understanding of the forest poverty nexus has improved, information relating to the contribution of forest resources to the income of rural households is still scanty. According to Kamanga Vedeld, Sjaastad (2009) rural households’ income and their degree of dependence on forest income could be determined by simply measuring the share of income derived from forest resources relative to all other sources of income. Thus, understanding the basic information regarding contributions of forest resources to rural household income and hence poverty reduction is necessary to facilitate the process of sustainable forest management through regulations and policies. With sustainable management, forests have the capacity to provide a perpetual stream of income and subsistence products, while supporting other economic activities (Neumann & Hirsch, 2000; Verweji et al., 2009; Watson & Albon, 2011) in Enugu State.

Available literature showed that, with few exceptions, contributions of forest resources have not been studied in-depth especially estimating its contributions to rural household income. The few studies on forest resources in Enugu State focused on NTFPs and forest product activities that yield income to rural household. Nzeh and Eboh (2008) examined the economic importance of forest products activities and found that rural households earn more income from forest products with added value. Also, in their attempt to ascertain the determinants of amount of income from forest among rural households in their study, important socio-economic variables like household size, gender, marital status and physical proximity of the forest to the household residents were omitted. No wonder the independent variables in their model explained only about 47% of the variability in income. Furthermore, Chukwuone and Okeke (2012) identified plant species of NTFPs that rural households consume. Similarly, Onyia (2015) ascertained the level of utilization of NWFPs and found that they constitute a substantial part of food consumed in rural households and ensures food security. Despite all these, contributions of forest resources to rural household income have not been studied. This gap in knowledge made this study necessary.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The broad objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of forest resources exploitation on economic well-being of farming households. The specific objectives of the study were to:

  1. Describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents;
  2. Identify commonly harvested forest products, and their uses;
  3. Determine the percentage contributions of different sources of income to total household income;
  4. Identify socio-economic factors influencing household income from forest resources; and
  5. Ascertain the constraints in accessing and utilization of forest resources among rural households

1.4 Hypothesis of the Study

The null hypothesis below was tested for the study:

Ho1: Socio-economic factors of the rural households do not have any significant effect on household income from forest resources.


1.5 Justification of the Study

Due to the limited livelihood opportunities in the rural areas, rural dwellers continuously exploit forest resources as a way to economically benefit from their natural resources. The availability and accessibility of forest products determine the prospects for forest-based livelihoods options. However, the growing demand for ecosystem services from forests in Nigeria and Enugu State in particular has led to overexploitation of forest resources and ultimately, scarcity of forest products, thereby raising fears about the livelihood of forest dependent rural communities. Deforestation is threatening rural people’s consumption of forest resources in Enugu State (Nzeh et al., 2015). The fact that forest resources contributes to rural livelihood and sustenance (Onyekuru & Marchant, 2014) indicates the significance of forest resources in rural household livelihoods and their potential role in rural poverty reduction. It also reveals the potential consequences of unabated forest degradation and deforestation for the rural economy of Enugu State. Although utilization of forest resources can be sustainable if appropriate forest management systems are put in place (Clark, 2001). However, documented knowledge about contributions of forest resources to rural household income is limited and information to influence policy making remains scarce. There is need to enhance knowledge about forest resources, promote the domestication and utilization of commercially viable plant species and conserve natural forests and their species richness (Reis, 1995). This study is therefore necessary to fill the gaps that exist with regard to relative contributions of forest resources to rural household income.

The findings of this study will be useful to policy makers to design and implement appropriate interventions in the forest sector that will enhance social welfare of forest dependent community and promote broad-based growth and sustainable management of forest resources that guarantee and secure their forest-based livelihood systems. The study will also help to visualize or conceptualize the role forest resources play in poverty situation of many rural poor households and to understand the nature and degree of household dependence on forest resources thereby engendering proper understanding of the value of forest resources. Furthermore, since most rural community resources share similar characteristics, findings of this study will be useful for designing policies and encourage the funding of scientific research on the development of forest resources to ensure their sustainability and also, form a basis for comparing results on contributions of forest resources to rural household income.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of forest resources exploitation on economic well-being of farming households. The specific objectives were to: describe the socioeconomic characteristics of the respondents; identify commonly harvested forest products, and their uses; determine the percentage contributions of different sources of income to total household income; identify socio-economic factors influencing household income from forest resources; and ascertain the constraints to accessing and utilization of forest resources among rural households in Enugu State. The study was guided by the null hypothesis that socioeconomic factors of the rural households do not have any significant effect on household income from forest resources.

Multistage sampling technique was used to select respondents for the study. Purposive sampling was used to select four agricultural zones namely; Awgu, Udi, Nsukka and Enugu Ezike, eight LGAs and 16 communities with relatively predominant availability of forest resources. Furthermore, 32 villages were selected at random from the communities and in the last stage, snow ball sampling was used to select 160 respondents for the study. Primary data obtained with the help of a structured questionnaire were used for the study. Statistical tools used for the study were descriptive statistic and multiple regression.

Results showed that the major source of income to the rural households in the study area was harvesting of forest resources. This activity was dominated by male headed households (54.8%). The average age of the household head was 50years and their level of education was low (mean of 4 years). Also, they had large family size (mean of 7 persons) and many years (mean of 20years) of experience in forest resources extraction. They walk an average distance of about 10 kilometres from their homestead to the forest. While their average annual income was
₦53,202, average annual forest income was ₦29,261.

Furthermore, analysis of forest products commonly harvested and their uses in the study area showed that forest products harvested and used include bush meat, fuelwood, oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla), bamboo, timber, palm wine, cashew (Anacardium occidentale), oil palm, bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis), mushroom, and honey, icheku(Landophia duleisvar), broom, uziza (Piper guinense), utazi(Gongromeme latifolain), kolanut (Cola nitida), ube oji(Dacryolis edulis), okazi(Gnetum spp), snail among others. These products which were unevenly distributed in the study area were major sources of income, food, cosmetics, medicinal materials, construction materials, cooking energy among others. The result of the analysis of the percentage contributions of different sources of income to household income showed that on the average, forest income share of the total household income was relatively high (55%).

The result of the regression analysis showed that gender of household head and household size had a positive and significant (P < 0.01 and P < 0.01 respectively) influence on forest income while annual income had a negative and significant (P < 0.01) influence on forest income. Although, the coefficients of distance of forest from home of the respondents, age, educational level, and years of experience in forest products extraction were not significant, the F-test confirmed that in combination, the factors had a significant (F = 15.89; P < 0.01) effect on forest income of rural household. Identified factors that constrained the accessing and utilization of forest resources in the area were deforestation (3.93), storage and processing facilities (3.29), poor means of transportation (3.98), lack of extension contacts (3.98), bush burning (3.89), fear of forest and wild animals (2.78), poor harvesting technique (2.65), deterioration (3.08), extinction of plant species (3.70) and insect pest and diseases (3.75).


5.2 Conclusion

Although harvesting of forest resources was the dominant occupation of rural households in this study, they also engaged in other livelihood activities to diversify their income. These households collected, used and marketed different forest products which contributed directly and indirectly to household economy through provision of income, food, medicine, cooking energy and cosmetics. Thus acting as a safety net especially when there is a short fall in agricultural production, to minimize risk and fill the gap of food shortage. Harvesting of forest resources provided the households with more income relative to other livelihood activities they engaged in. The amount of forest income households received was determined by gender of household head, household size and annual income. Accessing and utilization of forest resources was highly constrained by deforestation, bush burning, poor infrastructures such as poor storage and processing facilities, poor transportation system, among others.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made;

  1. Rural poverty is one of the reasons for unsustainable forest resources exploitation. This can be reduced through creating alternative sources of income outside the forest. Government should encourage rural dwellers to get into such activities so as to improve their livelihood.
  2. NTFPs like utazi, okazi etc should be raised alongside plantation trees. This is because these products are undergrowth climbers and they do not pose serious threats to development of forest plantation but could contribute immensely to maximize the output per unit area of forestlands. The little income derived from non-timber forest products harvesting could also serve as a financial succor to farmers while the timber component matures. This approach would encourage private participation as intermediate earnings could be obtained from these non-timber forest products, which could be used to defray the cost management. In addition it would assist in conserving forest biodiversity as it simulates the natural forest where many species subsist within the ecosystem with each specie occupying a niche and the different species exploring different horizon of the forest ecosystem.
  3. Forest products like bamboo, bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis), bee, snail, oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla)could be domesticated to supplement the output from the natural forest. However, extension programmes should target building skills for their domestication.
  4. In most cases,only a small percentage of what is harvested from the forest is eventually utilized. A larger percentage is wasted during storage and processing. Also the wastage between the harvest time and the time of utilization could be reduced through post harvest preservation methods such as cold storage and oven-dry. These measures will reduce wastage of resources thereby reducing frequency at which harvesters need to go to the forest for harvest and the harvesting pressures on the natural stocks.
  5. Forest regulatory laws should be reviewed or formulated where necessary to set the limit to what level of resources could be removed from the forest land at a given time in order to ensure that the resources are not exploited indiscriminately. Community leaders should be involved to see that the laws are enforced. Furthermore, punishments for forest offences should be such that they would serve as deterrent to others. Also, awareness campaign on tree planting should be encouraged with major emphasis on trees that are of high economic value.

5.4 Contributions to Knowledge

  1. The rural households in the study area engaged in other livelihood activities alongside harvesting of forest resources which was their dominant occupation, to diversify their income. This activity was dominated by male headed households and their average annual income was ₦53,202 while average annual forest income was ₦29,261.
  2. The forest resources commonly harvested, used and marketed included bush meat, fuelwood, oil bean (Pentaclethra macrophylla), bamboo, timber, palm wine, cashew (Anacardium occidentale), oil palm, bush mango (Irvingia gabonensis), mushroom, honey, icheku(Landophia duleisvar), broom, uziza(Piper guinense), utazi (Gongronema latifolain), kolanut (Cola nitida), ube oji(Dacryolis edulis), okazi (Gnetum spp), snail among others.
  3. Forest resources are major source of income, food, cosmetics, medicinal materials, construction materials and cooking energy.
  4. Forest income share of the total household income was relatively high (55%).
  5. Gender of household head, household size and annual income had significant influence on forest income.
  6. The factors that constrained the accessing and utilization of forest resources were deforestation, storage and processing facilities, poor means of transportation, lack of extension contacts, bush burning, fear of forest and wild animals, poor harvesting technique, deterioration, extinction of plant species and insect pest and diseases.

5.5 Suggestions for Further Research

The following areas are suggested for further research:

  1. Contributions of forest resources to income of rural households in other regions endowed with forest resources.
  2. Effects of forest exploitation on farming.
  3. Analysis of value chain of major forest products such as wood.

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