Effect Of Field Trip And Demonstration Instructional Strategies On Senior Secondary Schools Students Achievement And Retention Of Pollution

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Effect Of Field Trip And Demonstration Instructional Strategies On Senior Secondary Schools Students Achievement And Retention Of Pollution


Abstract


This study examines the Impact of Demonstration and Fieldtrip Instructional Strategies on Senior Secondary School Biology Student’s Achievement and Retention in Edati Local Government Area of Niger State. A pre-test post-test control quasi experimental design was adopted for the study. A total of 105 (49 males and 56 females) senior secondary school I (SSI) students drawn from two (2) Senior Secondary Schools were used for the study. The students were randomly assigned to Experimental and Control Groups. Six (6) hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The instrument used for data collection was the Biology Achievement Test (BAT) consisting of 20 multiple choice items which was developed by the researcher and validated by the experts in the field. A reliability coefficient of 0.85 was obtained using Cronbach alpha analysis and data collected were analysed. The result indicates that there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of students taught using Fieldtrip method and those taught using Demonstration method (t = 6.504, df = 103, p<0.05), there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Fieldtrip method with (t = 5.129, df = 56, p<0.05), there was a significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught using Demonstration method with (t = 4.531, df = 45 p<0.05), there was a significant difference in the mean retention scores of students using Fieldtrip method and those taught using Demonstration method with (t = 3.852, df = 103, p<0.05), there was also a significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught with the use of Fieldtrip method with (t = 3.522, df = 56, p<0.05) and there was a significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught using Demonstration method with (t = 2.401, df = 45, p<0.05). Based on these findings, it was concluded that the use of Fieldtrip method is more effective in improving student’s achievement in Biology than the use of Demonstration method. It is therefore recommended that School authority together with the school principal should encourage and give necessary support to teachers to provide and create avenue for students to embark on Fieldtrip activities for effective teaching and learning of Biology in secondary schools.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
  • 4.5 Discussion of Findings

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Science has been regarded as the bedrock of modern day technological breakthrough in that, it is the basis for all technological ideas seen in the world today. It is an organized body of knowledge directed towards resolution of human problems (Coll., France and Tailor, 2005). Nowadays, countries all over the world, especially the developing ones like Nigeria, are striving hard to develop technologically and scientifically, since the world is turning scientific and all functioning of lives depend greatly on science. Scientific enquiry is the primary process by which scientific knowledge is gained. According to Yaki (2012), Science is a dynamic human activity concerned with understanding the workings of our world. This understanding helps man to know more about the universe. The application of Science has also provided essential commodities such as drugs, clothing, fuel, food etc. In drugs, for example, we have antibiotics for infections, tranquilizers for nervous tensions, analgesic for pains etc. Therefore, the importance of science especially biology to mankind and his environment cannot be over- emphasized. Without the knowledge of science with its application, it would have been difficult for man to sight the other planets of the universe. Science comprises the basic disciplines such as Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics and Biology.

Biology as a core science subject is derived from Greek word “bios life and logia study of”. The Latin form of the term first appeared in 1736 by Swedish scientist Carl Linnaeus. It is a natural Science concerned with the study of life and living organisms, including their structure, function, growth, evolution, distribution, and taxonomy, (Magner and Lois 2002 and Larson and Edward 2016). Modern biology is a huge and extensive field, composed of many branches and sub disciplines. However, despite the broadness of the subject, there are certain general and unifying concepts within it that govern all study and research, consolidating it into single, coherent fields. In general, it recognises the cell as the basic unit of life, genes as the basic unit of heredity, and evolution as the engine that propels the synthesis and creation of new species. It is also understood today that all organisms survive by consuming and transforming energy and by regulating their internal environment to maintain a stable and vital condition. Sub disciplines of this subject are defined by the scale at which organisms are studied, the kinds of organisms studied, and methods used to study them; biochemistry examines the rudimentary chemistry of life; molecular biology studies the complex interactions among biological molecules; botany studies biology of plants; cellular biology examined the basic building-block of all life, the cell physiology examines the physical and chemical functions of tissues, organs, organ systems of an organism; evolutionary biology examines the processes that produced the diversity of life; and ecology examines how organisms interact in their environment. (Futuyma, 2005).

The importance of biology to mankind, plants and animals cannot be over-emphasised. The science of biology had been helping mankind in many ways in increasing food production, in combating diseases and in protecting and conserving the environment. Its advances in the field of food and health have resulted in high standard of living. It is crucial by improving existing varieties and developing new high-yield and disease resistant varieties of plants and animals used as food. Animals and plants breeding have advanced through selective breeding, using genetics principle, new and better varieties of rice, corn, wheat, chicken, cow and sheep (Nahle 2009).

Genes for diseases resistance and other desirable characters are introduced in plants using the techniques of genetic engineering. Poultry breeders have developed broilers for getting quick and cheap white meat. The advances in biological sciences have provided information about the causative agents of the diseases and their mode of transmission. For instance, the AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) caused HIV (Human Immune Deficiency Virus). (Nick and Tomasovic, 2004). A biologist, Edward Jenner, first developed the technique of vaccination in 1976 used for the vaccination/immunization of many diseases such as polio, whooping cough, measles and mumps etc. Teaching methods comprises the principles and methods used for instruction to be implemented by teachers to achieve the desired learning goals in students. These strategies are determined partly on subject matter to be taught and partly by the nature of the learner. For a particular teaching method to be appropriate and efficient it has to be in relation with the characteristics of the learner and the type of learning it is supposed to bring about. Davis (2008) suggests that the design and selection of teaching methods must put into consideration not only the nature of the subject matter but also how the students learn. Several types of teaching methods can be employed in the classrooms by the teachers such as the fieldtrip/excursion method and demonstration method.

Fieldtrip or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment. The purpose of the trip is usually observation for education, non-experimental research or to provide students with outside their everyday activities, such as going camping with the teachers and classmates. The aim of this research is to observe the subjects in its natural state and possibly collects samples. Fieldtrip is done in three (3) steps which are: preparation, activities and follow-up activities. Preparation is done by both the teachers and students. Teachers take time to learn about the destination and the subjects or topics before the trip. Activities is mostly done by the students which include lecture, tours, video and demonstration while follow-up activities are general discussions that occur in the classroom once the fieldtrip is completed, (Eley, & Norton 2004).

According to Eley and Norton (2002), Demonstration method is the process of teaching through examples in class or through experiments in laboratory. For example, a science teacher may teach the students a concept by performing an experiment for students. A demonstration may be used to prove a fact through combination of visual evidence and associated learning. Demonstrations help elevate the students’ interest and reinforce memory retention because they provide connections between facts and real world application of those facts.

Achievements mean something that has been done or accomplished through efforts or a result of hard work (Merriam and Webster 2009). It is the result of what an individual gain from some educational experiences. Additionally, achievement is the expectancy of finding satisfaction in mastering challenging and difficult performances, (De Cecco and Crawford, 2006). Retention means the act of retaining experiences or the condition of being retained. It also means the ability to recall or recognized what has been learned or experienced; memory, (Harper and Collins, 2014). Gender sensitive is also a moderating variable to look into. Firstly, boys always seem to perform better than girl’s counterpart in biology. Reports have shown that girls shy away from topics discussed with demonstration method and participate less than the boys in class; this could be due to self-esteem at adolescence while adolescent boys gain in self-esteem. It is important to also find out if the result of demonstration and fieldtrip is truly gender sensitive.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The students’ poor performance can be attributed to insufficient teaching and instructional methods employed by science teachers. The popular view in Nigeria today, is that the educational standard has fallen short of what it should be. This fall in educational standard is seen as the inability and incapability of some teachers to impact knowledge to the learners, the way they will understand and write well in examinations. Reports by examination bodies in Nigeria have revealed the persistent and endemic failure of students in both internal and external examinations especially in biology (WAEC and NECO) annual reports (2010-2016). The factors responsible for poor performance in Nigeria has been attributed to teacher’s lateness to work and commitment show by teachers, absenteeism and poor attitude to work encourage laziness and contribute to poor performance among students. Several teaching methods have been used to improve students’ performance in biology in Nigeria and these methods include lecture method, discussion method, play-way method, simulation and game enquiry method, expository method, constructivism method, project method, assignment method, interactive and question method etc. and yet no improvement on students’ performance. The purpose of this study therefore is to investigate the impact of demonstration and fieldtrip method of instruction on senior secondary school biology student’s achievement and retention in Edati Local Government Area of Niger State, Nigeria.


1.3 Objective of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the impact of demonstration and fieldtrip method of instruction on student’s achievement and retention on Concept of Pollution in Biology among secondary school biology students in Edati Local Government Area.

Specifically, the study has the following objectives:

  1. Find out the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s achievement
  2. Investigate the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender achievement
  3. Find out the impact of Demonstration method on gender achievement
  4. Determine the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s retention
  5. Find out the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender retention
  6. Investigate the impact of Demonstration method on gender retention.

1.4 Research Question

  1. What is the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s achievement ?
  2. What is the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender achievement ?
  3. What is the impact of Demonstration method on gender achievement ?
  4. What is the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s retention?
  5. What is the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender retention ?
  6. What is the impact of Demonstration method on gender retention.

1.5 Research Hypotheses

HO1: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores in students taught Biology with the use of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method.

HO2: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Biology with the use of Fieldtrip method.

HO3: There is no significant difference in the mean achievement scores of male and female students taught Biology with the use of Demonstration method.

HO4: There is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of students taught Biology with the use of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method.

HO5: There is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught Biology with the use of Fieldtrip method.

HO6: There is no significant difference in the mean retention scores of male and female students taught Biology with the use of Demonstration method.


1.6 Significance of the Study

The study on the impact of field trip studies on students academic performance in biology in the sense that it will enable the government to fund field trip so as to enable the students learn since biology is more practical than theory; more also since students cannot easily forget the things they see, (take for instance “movie”)such that they can tell you from the beginning to the end without forgetting anything the same thing applies to theory in class and field trip which will encourage and help them learn. The study will also enable the government in recruiting and also train effective biology teachers. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally examine the impact of field trip and demonstration studies on students academic performance in biology. However, the study will further ascertain whether field trip helps to enhance students comprehension of biology subject in secondary schools, ascertain whether field trip ignites students interest in biology subject in secondary schools, and ascertain whether field trip improves students’ academic performance in biology subject in secondary schools.

The study will therefore be delimited to some senior secondary schools in Edati Local Government Area.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact / Effect:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Field Trip:

Or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.

Performance / Achievement:

A thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on effect of field trip and demonstration instructional strategies on senior secondary schools students achievement and retention of pollution concept in biology, Edati Local Government Area of Niger State as case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on effect of field trip and demonstration instructional strategies on senior secondary schools students achievement and retention of pollution concept in biology, Edati Local Government Area of Niger State as case study. The study is was specifically focused on Finding out the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s achievement; Investigating the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender achievement; Finding out the impact of Demonstration method on gender achievement; Determining the impact of Fieldtrip method and Demonstration method on student’s retention; finding out the impact of Fieldtrip method on gender retention and Investigating the impact of Demonstration method on gender retention..

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 103 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are staff and students of selected secondary schools in Edati Local Government Area of Niger State.


5.3 Conclusion

The effective and efficient use of Fieldtrip method enhances students understanding, retention and recall. This is evident in the retention test. Therefore, the school authority together with the school principals and teachers should create an avenue for the students to embark on Fieldtrip activities for the students to see, touch and compare it to real life so as to increase their knowledge. But in absence of this, improvisation should be considered. Emphasis should therefore be laid on the use of Fieldtrip method in the teaching and learning of Biology.


5.4 Recommendations

In view of the findings of this research work, the following recommendations were made from the study:

  1. Teachers should be send on in-service training to learn the various teaching strategies for the teaching of biology in senior secondary schools.
  2. School Principals ought to support and give fundamentals backing to instructors for powerful utilization of the various teaching strategies for the teaching and learning of biology in senior secondary schools.
  3. There should be reinforcement of teachers dedicated to work through prize giving, scholarships and awards.

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