Effect Of Field Trip On Biology Students Achievement

Biology Education Project Material

Effect Of Field Trip On Biology Students Achievement


Abstract


The study investigated the Effects of field- trip on Academic Achievement in Biology among Secondary School Students in Ikwuano , Nigeria. An experimental design which utilized Pre-test-Post-test Control Group design was adopted. The population of the study consisted of 2934 SS1 students from nineteen (19) public schools in Ikwuano Educational Zone of Abia State. Four (4) out of nineteen schools were randomly selected from both urban and ruralareas where two schools each were used as experimental and control groups respectively. The experimental group was taught using field trip teaching strategy while the control group was taught by lecture method. A stratified random sampling technique was employed to select the sample from the four schools and a total of 200 students were selected as sample size from both urban and rural areas. The instruments used for this study were Biology Achievement Test (BAT ) with reliability value 0.83 and Biology Retention Test (BRT ) with reliability value 0.85 aimed at determining the achievement and retention of the students. After the data were collected; the research questions were tested with descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested using inferential statistics i.e independent sample test (t-test). The finding of the study showed that the field trip teaching strategy favoured the experimental group in Biology concept. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy favoured urban experimental group. One of the major recommendations made is that Government should make the use of field trip teaching strategy compulsory particularly in the teaching and learning of Biology concept at senior secondary school level.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Field trips are a critical component of standards-based instruction in the classroom, not a separate activity, but a direct extension of classroom instruction. Awotua-Efebo (2009) agrees that field work is a type of instructional medium in use today, since instructional medium according to the author, is “anything (materials and equipment) that can help the teacher to communicate effectively his or her ideas to the students, so that at the end of the instruction the student can do that which the teacher stated in the objectives. Examples are: real object (specimen, models, excursions, field work) projected/non-projected images, print non-prints etc.

Basically, biology field trip is seen as a support for effective teaching and not a centre of attention. Awotua-Efebo (2009) argued that effective teaching should be the goal, and defines effective teaching as “getting the content (message) across in a manner that will accomplish the desired objectives, and add also that if at the end of the instruction, the student do what the teacher want them to do through the process of evaluation, then effective teaching has taken place.

Furthermore, biology field trips by secondary school students were expected to enhance student learning experiences through interaction with resource persons and the environment. Such centers were supposed to provide better resources than the school for first hand information, especially as learning outside the classroom aims at ensuring that all young people had chances to participate in high quality outdoor learning experiences.

It also set out to improve academic achievement, developed skills and interdependent in a widening range of environments and provide the opportunity to acceptable levels of risk. But regrettably, many critics and observers have expressed that the whole exercise is a mere jamboree and a waste of time and energy and has not in any way responded to improve student’s performance in Biology.

Rickinson, et al. (2004) it can lead to life-defining decisions. It can help to broaden horizons, both literally and educationally, and offers great potential for personal development, building independence, self esteem, self confidence and teamwork. Such potentially life-defining opportunities for biologists need to be celebrated and nurtured. Whilst attention often focuses on pressures and demands, field activities can be highly effective in developing mutual understanding between teachers and students which enhances the effectiveness of learning and can provide motivation which transfers/remains after the field experience Hillcox, S. (2003).


1.2 Statement of the Problem

Field trip is an essential part of learning that enhances effective teaching and learning process. At times this aspect of teaching may not really be effective due to the fact that there are no resources that are pulled towards that direction since it needs so much funding. It could be that most biology teachers do not even know where exactly to take the student to for excursion. Finally, several researches has been carried out on the effect of field trip on biology students but not even a single research has been carried out on the effect of field trip on biology students achievement in Kwuano LGA, Abia state.


1.3 Aims and Objectives of Study

The main aim of the study is to examine the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement. Other specific objectives of the study include:

  1. To determine the effect of field trip on male and female student’s achievement.
  2. To determine the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement.
  3. To determine the difference in urban and rural school students achievement in field trip teaching method.
  4. To proffer possible solutions to the problems.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the effect of field trip on male and female student’s achievement?
  2. What is the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement?
  3. What is the difference in urban and rural school student’s achievement in field trip teaching method?
  4. What are the possible solutions to the problems?

1.5 Statement of Research Hypothesis

  • H0: Field trip has no significant effect on biology student achievement in Kwuano LGA of Abia state.
  • H1: Field trip has no significant effect on biology student achievement in Kwuano LGA of Abia state.

1.6 Significance of Study

The study on the effect of field trip on biology student achievement will be of immense benefit to the entire Kwuano local government and Abia state at large in the sense that it will enable the government to fund field trip so as to enable the students learn since biology is more practical than theory; more also since students cannot easily forget the things they see, (take for instance “movie”)such that they can tell you from the beginning to the end without forgetting anything the same thing applies to theory in class and field trip which will encourage and help them learn. The study will also enable the government in recruiting and also train effective biology teachers. Finally, the study will contribute to the body of existing literature and knowledge to this field of study and basis for further research.


1.7 Scope of Study

The study on the effect of field trip on biology student’s achievement is limited to Kwuano local government area of Abia state.


1.8 Limitation of Study

Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Effect:

A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.

Field Trip:

Or excursion is a journey by a group of people to a place away from their normal environment.

Achievement:

A thing done successfully with effort, skill, or courage.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.0 Introduction

This chapter was discussed under the following headings, summary, conclusion and recommendations


5.1 Summary

The major purpose of this study was to determine the effects of field trip on student’s achievement, and retention, in Biology among senior secondary school 1 students of Rural and urban location in Ikwuano educational zone. The study reviews the literature relevant to the study under the following sub-headings: Nature of biology as Science subject at senior secondary level, teaching Biology concept at senior secondary level, student’s academic achievement in biology, science teaching methods/strategies., field Trip for teaching science, retention ability in science, school location and academic achievement in science, overview of similar studies and Implication of the literature reviewed on the present study.

The design of the study was quasi experimental control involving the pre-test posttests. The sample of the study consisted of 200 SS 1 biology students in both rural and urban areas. Three research questions were raised and collapsed to three hypotheses. The research questions were tested with descriptive statistics such as mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested with inferential statistics i.e independent sample test(t-test).
From the results of the analyses discussed in 4.2, the field trip teaching strategy favored the experimental group in Biology concept. This provided a positive response to the question does field trip strategy have any effect on students’ performance in Biology concept? The

study shows that, there is significant differences between the achievements of students taught using field trip teaching strategy and those taught by traditional method. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy is a good tool in teaching Biology concept at secondary school level.

Field trip teaching strategy also favoured the urban experimental group in Biology concept; this provided a positive response to the question, what is the effect of field trip on urban and rural students’ performance in Biology concept in Ikwuano educational zone? The study shows that, there are significants between the achievement of students in urban experimental group using field trip teaching strategy and those students in rural experimental group using the same strategy. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy has made more impact on urban students.

Field trip teaching strategy favoured the experimental group in Biology concept on retention ability. This provided a positive response to the question, what is the effect of field trip on student’s retention ability in Biology concept among senior secondary school in Ikwuano educational zone. The study shows that, there is significant difference between the achievement of students taught using field trip teaching strategy and those taught by traditional method. The study further confirmed that field trip teaching strategy is a good tool in teaching Biology concept at senior secondary school level.


5.2 Conclusion

This unit gave inferences drawn from the finding thus:

Generally, it was confirmed that there was high significant difference between the mean achievement of the experimental and control groups in Biology concept. And there was also high significant difference between the mean achievement of the experimental and control groups in Biology concept on retention ability. This further confirmed that the field trip teaching strategy has gained more than the traditional method of teaching.

However, it was statistically, shown that field trip teaching strategy favoured students in urban experimental group in teaching Biology concept. This might be that, the students in urban are more curious i.e want to know when taken to the natural surroundings, urban student used English as a means of communication so they have advantage in NECO/WAEC examination and also availability of electric light in the urban help in the used of internet.

Field trip teaching strategy favored the experimental groups was due to the fact that the pre-requisite steps of activities in teaching of Biology concept were followed. This has stimulated students’ attention and interest, which led to good performance in Biology concept. The students on experimental group were taught with the strategy (field trip) that required the used of basic science process skills i.e observation, identification, classification and manipulation of substances in the natural surroundings. The students in this group became more active and creative since they can see and manipulate organism in their natural surroundings.


5.3 Recommendations

Based on the findings of this study; the following recommendations are made; thus:

  1. Although field trip is integrated into the teaching programme, it is not being used. Therefore, the government should make the use of field trip teaching strategy compulsory particularly in the teaching and learning of the Biology concept at SS level. This will enhance students gain first hand information, and provide opportunity for them to see, possibly touch and feel what they have heard about certain organism and situations.
  2. Field trip experiences when used should be relevant to contents in the curriculum, if they are to make the necessary impact.
  3. Field trip experiences should emphasizes real practical experiences with the students collecting, analyzing data, interpreting data and using them to explain previous knowledge.
  4. Field trip when used should be such that can serve as an integrated learning i.e field trip cannot teach one idea, but many. A field trip to a vegetable farm, for example can bring disparate topics together such as photosynthesis, the scientific method, how to collect data, plant, insect, part of flowers, soil erosion etc.
  5. For the exercise (field trip) to be successful, it has to be well-funded, by both school authorities and parents. As such the school authorities and parents should put hands together to make field trip teaching strategy at all level of learning in successful one by proper funding at any design time.

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