Effects Of Examination Malpractices On Educational System In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Education

Project and Seminar Material for Education


Abstract


The educational system has for long had serious hit from examination malpractice and this has brought into focus the need to tackle this issues in order of finding ways to eradicate such problems. In the light of the above the study looked at examination malpractices in Apa local government area with the view to achieve the following objectives.

  1. To find out the causes of examination malpractice in the local government area.
  2. To find out the various means by which students use to cheat during examination
  3. To investigate the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and educational system in general
  4. To profound possible solutions, which could be use to eradicate the problem of examination malpractice.

To achieve these objectives the problem of examination malpractice. To achieve these objectives the survey method was used for data collection, we used questionnaire to elicit information from chose school students, the result of the data analysis showed that the main causes of examination malpractice is the strong desire to acquire a certificate well labeled and most parents encourage them on it and the method commonly used is spying and copying of answers to examination questions from fellow students and examination malpractices has brought disastrous effect on students and the educational system in Nigeria and finally, some measures to adopt in eradicating this problems is:

  1. Punishing students or whoever is involved in the act.
  2. Spacing of students in the hall
  3. Higher payment and regular payment of salaries to supervisors and lecturers

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Education is the development of an individual through training, transmission of what is worthwhile to the point that he is able to fit into his environment and contribute to the best of his ability for the wellbeing of the society. Our educational system uses examination to grade students in internal and external examinations in Nigeria. However, examinations are known to play very important roles in our educational system. They are used for academic stratification or for assigning grades to students in secondary schools and other institutions of learning. A students with a distinction all through in certificate examination will be regarded by those around him as academically precious. He is also likely to have a place in institution of higher learning or in job situation within the society than a child with a mere pass or a failure. All these conditions have combine to influence a student’s attitude to an examination malpractice. Olayinka (1993) defined examination malpractice as any misconduct or improper practice in any examination with a view to obtaining good results through fraudulent action. Daramola and Oluyeba (1992) define examination malpractice as an irregular behaviour exhibited by candidates or anybody charged with the conduct of examination in or outside the examination hall before, during or after such examinations. Shonekan (1996) sees it as irregularities which are premediated and perpetuated by the candidates or their agents with the intention of gaining undue advantages in the examination. The problem of examination malpractices in Nigeria seems to be as old as the introduction of forma system of education (Afigbo, 1993). The first major incidence of examination malpractice was n 1914,m when the senior Cambridge local examination leaked. This scenario took an u7nprecedented surge in 1963 when two public examinations of 1967, 1977, 1981 and 1987 ;leaked. These leakages then attracted the attention of the federal government, which led to the promulgation of Decree 27 of 1973 and miscellaneous decree 20 of 1984 to curb examination malpractices, and later decree prescribed 21 years jail term for offenders. These and other measured put in place still do not deter people from engaging in examination malpractice. In the WAEC conducted examination in 1991, 30, 982 students were involved in examination while 35,479 were reported in 1992. Thus, the number of offenders and related offences resulting in cancellation of results is quite disheartening. Investigations conducted by the national concord of Tuesday June, 1998 revealed how teachers help students to engage in examination malpractice, by coaching them before examination and the changing of incorrect answers afterwards. This trend according to the report is being used by the schools involved to improve their position in the performance tables, which have become a key indicator for parents choosing a school for their children. Examination malpractices renders certificates issued by examination bodies unreliable. The examination bodies lose finally, manpower in their bid to overcome examination malpractice. In view of the adverse effects that examination malpractices have on the educational system, it became necessary to critically examine it. At what stage do examination malpractice occur, what are their impact on the students themselves and on education standards?


1.2 Statement of the Problems

In this research work an attempt will be made to find out such factors militating against the smooth conduct of West African Examination Council (WAEC) and National Examination Council (NECO) in senior secondary school in Apa Local Government Area of Benue State. the focus is on this two examinations and candidates of this examinations often strive to be successful by whatever means. During these National Examination, candidates and their agents play various anomalies such as leakage of question papers, impersonation, copying and cheating and other form of examination malpractice. These practices have often been carefully designed and perpetrated by the students in collaboration with teachers, parents, and examination officials to the extent that they became canker-warm in the body of the Nigeria Education System. These tend to question the authenticity, reliability and validity of certificate issued by these National Examination bodies.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study include;

  1. To find out the causes of examination malpractice in the local government area.
  2. To find out the various means by which students use to cheat during examination
  3. To investigate the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and educational system in general
  4. To profound possible solutions, which could be use to eradicate the problem of examination malpractice.

1.4 Researcher Questions

These research questions below provide background to this study.

  1. What are the causes of examination malpractices in Apa Local Government Area?
  2. What are the methods used by students to cheat in examination in Apa Local Government Area?
  3. What are the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and educational system in general?
  4. What are the possible solutions, which could be use to eradicate the problem of examination malpractice?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study hopefully will be useful to students, teachers, parents, examination bodies and educational planners in Nigeria and Apa Local Government Area of Benue State in particular. The research will assist our educational planners to provide quality education. It will identify the causes and methods used by students to cheat during examination. It will put hold to cancellation of result. It will assist the examination bodies to curb all forms of examination malpractice, so that they can restore public confidence, acceptability and authenticity of certificates issued.


1.6 Scope of the Study

Examination malpractice are major problems in most institution of learning in Nigeria. However, the study intends to examine the causes of examination malpractice in the local government area. Also, find out the various means by which students use to cheat during examination. Furthermore, investigate the effect of examination malpractice to both the students and educational system in general. Hence this study will be carried out in selected secondary schools in Apa Local Government Area of Benue State. The sample will be from five randomly selected secondary schools.


1.7 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

Financial constraint , was faced by the researcher ,in getting relevant materials and in printing and collation of questionnaires

Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher


1.8 Definition of Terms

Examination Malpractice:

A deliberate wrong doing contrary to official examination rules designed to place a candidate at unfair advantage


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of examination malpractice on educational system in Nigeria using selected schools in Apa as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at highlighting the causes of examination malpractice in secondary schools. The various means by which student use to cheat in examination . the effect of examination malpractice in both to the student and educational system at large. Proffer possible solutions which could be used to eradicate the problems of examination malpractice.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 30 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from staffs of the selected schools.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. Technology-assisted Cheating Methods is one of the causes of examination malpractice.
  2. Laziness of students is another causes of examination malpractice.
  3. Peer pressure is also another causes of examination malpractice.
  4. Structural arrangements in the examination rooms is one of the ways to prevent examination malpractice
  5. Punishment of offenders is another of the ways to prevent examination malpractice
  6. Through proper and effective invigilation

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Pending the provision of adequate hall and seats for examinations, adequate number of invigilators should be assigned to examination room (the policy of a chief invigilator and at least one invigilator to every 40 students should beadhered to).
  2. All activities relating to examinations such as question paper production, invigilation, marking and result collation as well as computation should behandled with a high sense of responsibility by those concerned.
  3. For the many examination offenders now and the few that would still violate even after self-discipline has been enshrined in the long run, appropriate sanctions should be applied.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Is examination malpractice in Nigeria a chronic state?

Frankly speaking, education in Nigeria is really in a chronic state. Many scholars are of the view that there is actually no hard and fast rule for whipping off examination malpractice from the examination system of Nigeria. In this article, i will be analyzing and discussing examination malpractice in Nigeria.

Should examination malpractice be reduced by reducing paper qualification of students?

It is possible for a student who had low grades while in school to work better than another student with good grades in the same area of specialty. My point hear is that for examination malpractice to reduce, it is necessary that lesser value be placed on the paper qualification of students.

Are parents to blame when students engage in examination malpractice?

Most times parents are to be blamed when students engage in examination malpractice because, they are responsible for the moral life of their children. It has also been stated by many scholars that to ensure a drastic decrease in the rate of examination malpractice in Nigeria, the role of parents is very important.

How a child is trained can increase the rate of examination malpractice?

The way a child is trained can increase or decrease the rate of examination malpractice in Nigeria. The reason is because, most people act the way they act in the public because, that is the way they were trained. 

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