The Effect Of The Ethanolic Extract Of Anchomanes Difformis (Blume) On Liver Functions Of Adult Wistar Rats

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

The Effect Of The Ethanolic Extract Of Anchomanes Difformis (Blume) On Liver Functions Of Adult Wistar Rats


Abstract


This research was carried out to determine the effect of administration of Achomanes Difformis (blume) on liver functions in adult wistar rat, in which 20 adult wistar rats were purchased at the institute of advanced medical research and training (IMRAT), UCH, Ibadan. The rats were grouped into 4 in which there is a control group in which the rats were placed on normal diet and water. Other groups (A, B and C) were administered 300mg/kg/b.wt, 500mg/kg/b.wt and 700mg/kg/b.wt respectively. The herb was administered for duration of 14 days. Their cages were cleaned every day maintain proper hygiene. The rats were sacrificed immediately after two weeks of drug administration. From the result obtained, the administration of Anchomanes difformis has a hepatotoxic effect. It showed that there was an insignificant increase (p>0.05) in the level of AST, ALT and ALP, and an insignificant decrease (p>0.05) in the level of Total and Direct Bilirubin in the plasma at different dosage rate of the herb, when compared to the control group. The result demonstrates that the ingestion of Anchomanes difformis has a hepatotoxic effect in adult wistar rat.


Table Of Contents


  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Medicinal plants
  • 1.1.2 History of medicinal plants
  • 1.2 Liver function test
  • 1.3 Aim of study

Chapter Two

  • 2.0 Literature review
  • 2.1 Anchomanes Difformis
  • 2.1.2 Features
  • 2.1.3 Uses of Anchomanes Difformis
  • 2.1.4 Scientific studies on A.difformis
  • 2.2 The Liver
  • 2.2.1 Anatomy of the Liver
  • 2.2.2 Functions
  • 2.2.3 Cell types
  • 2.3 Evaluation of Liver functions
  • 2.4 Abnormal levels of liver enzymes
  • 2.4.1 Nonalcoholic fatty liver damage
  • 2.4.2 Alcohol
  • 2.4.3 Wilson disease
  • 2.4.4 Hepatits
  • 2.4.5 Cirhosis
  • 2.4.6 Medications
  • 2.5 Aspartate aminotransferase (AST)
  • 2.5 Functions
  • 2.5.1 Mechanism of action
  • 2.5.2 Clinical signifance
  • 2.6 Alanine aminotransferase (ALT)
  • 2.6.1 Functions
  • 2.6.2 Clinical significance
  • 2.7 Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
  • 2.7.1 Physiology
  • 2.7.2 Elevation in ALP level
  • 2.8 Bilirubin
  • 2.8.1 Functions
  • 2.8.2 Clinical significance
  • 2.8.3 Abnormal Bilirubin level

Chapter Three

  • 3.0 Materials and methods
  • 3.1 Apparatus and equipment
  • 3.2 Chemical reagents
  • 3.3 Collection and extraction of plant materials
  • 3.4 Practical history and Animal management
  • 3.5 Drug administration
  • 3.6 Sacrificing of rats
  • 3.7 Organ homogenization
  • 3.8 Biochemical analyses
  • 3.8.1 Bilirubin
  • 3.8.1.1 Principle
  • 3.8.1.2 Reagent composition
  • 3.8.1.3 Procedure
  • 3.8.2 Alanine aminotransferase
  • 3.8.2.1 Principle
  • 3.8.2.2 Reagent composition
  • 3.8.2.3 Procedure
  • 3.8.2.4 Calculation
  • 3.8.3 Alkaline phosphatase
  • 3.8.3.1 Principle
  • 3.8.3.2 Reagent composition
  • 3.8.3.3 Preparation of reagents
  • 3.8.3.4 Procedure
  • 3.8.3.5 Calculation
  • 3.8.4 Aspartate aminotransferase
  • 3.8.4.1 Principle
  • 3.8.4.2 Reagent composition
  • 3.8.4.3 Procedure
  • 3.8.4.4 Calculation

Chapter Four

  • 4.0 Results

Chapter Five

  • 5.0 Discussion, conclusion and recommendation
  • 5.1 Discussion
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix

List Of Tables


  • Table 1; Mean concentration of Aspartate aminotransferase.
  • Table 2; Mean concentration of Alanine aminotransferase.
  • Table 3; Mean concentration of Alkaline phosphatase.
  • Table 4; Mean concentration of Direct bilirubin.
  • Table 5; Mean concentration of Total bilirubin.

List Of Figures


  • Figure 1; Fresh plant of Anchomanes difformis.
  • Figure 2; Rhizome of Anchomanes difformis.
  • Figure 3; Labeled structure of the liver.
  • Figure 4; Bar chart showing the level of Aspartate aminotransferase in adult wistar rats.
  • Figure 5; Bar chart showing the level of Alanine aminotransferase in adult wistar rats.
  • Figure 6; Bar chart showing the level of Alkaline phosphatase in adult wistar rats.
  • Figure 7; Bar chart showing the level of Direct bilirubin in adult wistar rats.
  • Figure 8; Bar chart showing the level of Total bilirubin in adult wistar rats.

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