Effect Of Environmental Factors On Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Federal Polytechnic In Anambra State (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic, Oko)

Environmental Education Project and Seminar Material

Effect Of Environmental Factors On Academic Performance Of Students In Selected Federal Polytechnic In Anambra State (A Case Study Of Federal Polytechnic, Oko)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The study was specifically set to find out whether there is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance, ascertain whether the lack of adequate infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics, ascertain whether the over crowded lecture hall significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics, ascertain whether the school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics and ascertain whether the school security situation significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics. The study employed the survey descriptive research design. A total of 141 responses were validated from the survey. The population size comprise of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State. From the responses obtained and analyzed, the findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance. Furthermore, the school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics. The study thereby recommend that the education sector should be appropriately funded to enable the sector acquire the necessary facilities to make the learning environment very adaptable, useful and viable to meet the educational goals of Nigeria. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Scope of the Study
  • 1.7 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.8 Definition of Terms
  • 1.9 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • REFERENCES
  • APPENDIX

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Environment influence before now have not considered as one of the factors that affects academic performance in higher institution, hence it has little or no attention in educational discourse and consideration. But over the past decades in correlation between the environment and academic performance of students. Environment play a major role in the life of every individual whether a student, teachers, employer or employee.

Though some people are yet to believe that environment bring about better performance. Udoh (1980) in this article “the environmental health problems in Nigeria schools” identified some unhealthy practices in our school, inadequate facility, poor ventilation etc, most of our schools have no lights, insufficient facilities, sick buildings and no ventilation etc.

Most of our schools, especially the higher institutions in Nigeria are affected by the environmental influence which will in turn reflect on the student performance. Therefore for the student to carry out his/her learning process effectively and efficiently it is necessary that learning take place in a conducive environment.

Hence, it is penitent to critically look at the environmental factors that influence academic performance of students. Measures that can help improve them and make some recommendation because at the very heart of our educational mission is the goal of improving academic performances.

Studies have shown that environmental factors to a very large extent affect both the physical and psychological potential of an individual. This word led to the contention that many students tail to develop their potential is due to inadequate environmental stimulation. However, there are some environmental factors which have contributed to the poor performance of student which are home background, inadequate school facilities, misuse of technology such as internet and school climate, such as student teacher relationship, class rooms, libraries, technical workshops, laboratories, teachers quality, school management, teaching methods, peers etc are variables that affect students academic achievement (Ajayi 2001 and Oluchukwu 2000). Hence, the school environment remains an important area that should be studied and will managed to enhance students academic performance.

The issue of poor academic performance of students in Nigeria has been of much concern to the government, parents, teachers and even student themselves. The quality of education not only depends in the teachers as reflected in the performance of their duties, but also in the effective coordination of the school environment (Ajao 2001). School environment which include instructional spaces planning, administrative places planning, the teachers as well as the students themselves are essential in teaching – learning process. The extent to which student learning could be enhanced depends on their location within the school compound, the structure of their classroom, availability of instructional facilities and accessories. It is believed that a well planned school will gear up expected outcomes of education that will facilitate emancipation, effective teaching and learning process and academic performance of the students.

Relating this study to international occurrences are the assertions of Williams, Perand, and Turnet (2008), quoting Marsden (2005), which reported that safe and orderly class room environment (aspect of instructional space) school facilities (accessories) were significantly related to students academic performance in schools. The three researchers, also quoted Glassman (1994), asserting that a comfortable and caring environment among other treatments helped to contribute to students academic performance.

The physical characteristics of the school have a variety of effects on teachers, students, and the learning process. Poor lighting, noise, high levels of carbon dioxide in class rooms, and inconsistent temperatures make teaching and learning difficult. Poor maintenance and ineffective ventilation systems lead to poor health among students as well as teachers, which leads to poor performance and higher absentee rates (Frazier, 2002, Lyons, 2001 and Ostendat 2001). These lead to higher levels of frustration among teachers and poor learning attitude among students. Beyond the direct effects that poor facilities have on students ability to learn, the combination of poor facilities which create an uncomfortable and uninviting workplace for teachers, combined with frustrating behavior by students including poor concentration and hyperactivity, lethargy or apathy, creates a stressful set of working conditions for teachers. Because stress and job dissatisfaction are common precursors to lowered teacher enthusiasm, it is possible that the aforementioned characteristics of school facilities have an effect upon the academic performance of students. Previous studies have investigated the relationship of poor school environment including problems with student teacher ratio, school location, school pollution, classroom with student health problems, student behavior and student achievement (Crandell and Smaldiho, 2000, Davis, 2001, Johnson, 2001, Lyons 2001, Moore 2002, Strichers 2000, tanner, 2000). To complement these studies the present research will examine the aforementioned of school environment as it affect students performance in Nigerian schools most especially here in Federal Polytechnic Oko in Anambra State which is the case study of this research.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

This study examined the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study.

In recent times it is has become a common phenomenon to read or hear incidence of student involvement in anti-social behavior such as teenage pregnancy/parenting, child abuse, alcohol in takes, drug abus, rape, prostitution, sexual prevision, stealing, cultism, adolescent suicide, school dropout and all kind of wanton misdemeanor. Sad to say, these are some of the influence of the academic performance of student observed from the selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study. Many have agreed that deviant act perpetrated by students in the higher education are responsible for the downward turn in academic performance and social adjustment of these students. It is not certain whether efforts are taken by researchers, teachers, school administrators and stake holders at linking behavior among university students to the environmental influence with a view of curbing these behaviours have yielded any fruits in the past.

In the light of the overall challenge of the influence of environment on the academic performance of students, this study set out to examined the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study


1.3 Objective of the Study

The broad objectives of this study is to examine the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic in Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The other specific objectives includes:

  1. Find out whether there is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance.
  2. Ascertain whether the lack of adequate infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  3. Ascertain whether the over crowded lecture hall significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  4. Ascertain whether the school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  5. Ascertain whether the school security situation significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there any significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance?
  2. Does the lack of adequate infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics?
  3. Does the over crowded lecture hall significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics?
  4. Does the school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics?
  5. Does the school security situation significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The study covers the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study

This study will be useful to many people who may want to know the environmental factors that could make or mar students’ achievement academically. Therefore, the study is significant in the following regards:

  1. It will provide empirical evidence to schools, parents and students about the nature of home and family background, and how it affects the academic achievement of students.
  2. It will help in improving students’ achievement irrespective of their background and other environmental factors.
  3. It will help the teacher and the school management to improve on the school environment and school facilities so as to improve students’ achievement.
  4. It will provide awareness for all the stakeholder of secondary education to provide favorable environment for teaching-learning process. These include the state government, proprietors and proprietress, the teachers, parents, students and all other persons involved in day to day running of the schools.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of this study borders on the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study. Hence, the respondents for this study will comprise of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.


1.8 Limitation of Study

This research project, like all human endeavors, had some challenges that threatened to derail the study’s completion. One of the reasons is that the time allotted for this work was so limited that the researcher did not have enough time to complete the task thoroughly. During data collection, the researcher also had to put forth extra effort to understand the respondents’ interview schedules, several of whom fell into the incomprehensible age group. Also, there were financial and transportation constraints to deal with. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire, interview).


1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Achievement:

Knowledge attained or skills developed in school subjects by test scores.

School:

A school is an institution designed for the teaching of students (or “pupils”) under the direction of teachers.

School Environment:

A school’s physical environment includes the school building and the surrounding.

Environmental Factors:

An identifiable element in the physical, cultural, demographical, economic, political, regulatory or technological environment that affects the survival, operations and growth of a phenomenon.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary

In this study, our focus was the effect of environmental factors on academic performance of students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State as a case study. The study specifically was aimed at to find out whether there is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance, ascertain whether the lack of adequate infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics, ascertain whether the over crowded lecture hall significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics, ascertain whether the school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics and ascertain whether the school security situation significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.

A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are drawn from students in selected Federal Polytechnic Oko, Anambra State.


5.3 Conclusion

Based on the finding of this study, the following conclusions were made:

  1. There is a significant relationship between school environment and students academic performance.
  2. The lack of adequate infrastructural/learning facilities significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  3. The over crowded lecture hall significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  4. The school location/climate significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.
  5. The school security situation significantly affects students academic performance in Federal Polytechnics.

5.3 Recommendation

Based on the responses obtained, the researcher proffers the following recommendations:

  1. Educational managers of Nigeria must consider environmental factors in designing educational environments.
  2. Education managers, particularly in the public education sector, through the inspectorate unit of the Ministry of Education should ensure that learning supportive school environments are in place. For instance, schools should be located in low noise areas and there should be adequate open spaces for students to operate, classroom temperature should not be disruptive to teaching and learning, paintings should be moderate, and scent from deodorants and or cleaning liquids should not be offensive.
  3. Regular monitoring, supervision and evaluation of school activities should be carried out to assess participation, involvement, and understanding of the students and offer support when necessary
  4. The education sector should be appropriately funded to enable the sector acquire the necessary facilities to make the learning environment very adaptable, useful and viable to meet the educational goals of Nigeria.
  5. Seasoned educationist and administrators with good reputation and experience should be appointed as administrators of schools. This will enable them to articulate policies and govern the learning institutions in a way that meets globally acceptable standards.
  6. Outdated school structures and learning facilities should be replace with modern on es that are line with the present students need and societal expectations.

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