The Effect Of Employment Discrimination On Polytechnic Graduates In Nigeria; An Analysis

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


This study was carried out to investigate the effect of employment discrimination on the Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria. The work however, is to investigate why the polytechnic graduates are been discriminated in terms of employment opportunities. The reason for this discrimination can also discourse whu this discrimination on Polytechnic graduates is on the increase in Nigeria.

The questionnaire also showed us the discrimination on polytechnic graduates in Nigeria. The government effort to ameliorate this discrimination on the polytechnic graduates were also examined and the effectiveness of the measure taken by the government were also discoursed. At the end, a suggestion and recommendation was made/given to the government of Nigeria as to this ugly situation facing the Polytechnic graduated in Nigeria could be solved.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Approval page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

  • 1.1. Background of study
  • 1.2. Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 objective of the study
  • 1.4 research questions
  • 1.5. Significance of the study
  • 1.6. Scope of the study
  • 1.7 limitation of the study
  • 1.8. Definitions of terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1. Introduction
  • 2.2. Conceptual clarification
  • 2.3 Business environment
  • 2.4 Establishments of Polytechnics
  • 2.5 Impact of Polytechnic for National Development cases of Canada and Nigeria
  • 2.6 Problems facing Polytechnic: Nigeria perspective
  • 2.7 Reasons for Polytechnic /University dichotomy
  • 2.8 General effects of polytechnic students employment discrimination.
  • References

Chapter Three

3.0. Research Design and Methodology

  • 3.1. Introduction
  • 3.2 Research design
  • 3.3. Sources / methods of data collection
  • 3.4. Population and sample size
  • 3.5. Sampling technique
  • 3.6. Validity and reliability of measuring instrument
  • 3.7. Method of data analysis

Chapter Four

4.0. Presentation and Analysis of Data

  • 4.1. Introduction
  • 4.2. Presentation of data
  • 4.3. Analysis of data
  • 4.4. Interpretation of result (s)

Chapter Five

5.0. Summary, Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1. Summary of findings
  • 5.2. Recommendations
  • 5.3. Conclusion
  • References
  • Appendix 1

Chapter One

1.0. Introduction

Employment discrimination on Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria can be seen as a situation whereby the Polytechnic graduates are not been employed, or simply put, it is an ugly situation connected with a wide disparity between HND and B.Sc holders in Nigeria.

The issue of employment discrimination in Nigeria is a continuous issue to the Polytechnic graduates, community, society and even the government. Infact, it is an ugly situation facing the Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria and sometimes results to demoralization among prospective students. The rate of Polytechnic discrimination is employment or at the labour market in Nigeria is quiet high since the mid 80s and the inception of oil boom.

According to Nwatu (2006) a survey carried out by the center for investment sustainable development, management and environment in 1998 gave the feature of employment discrimination (unemployment) which hitherto was noticed lately started to emerge graduates discrimination:

  1. Nigeria has a total environment of about 600,000 students in 149 tertiary institutions in 1996/1997 academic year.
  2. There were 123,000 graduates in 1995/1996 session and about 130,000 graduates in 1997.
  3. Cumulatively, Nigeria produced a total number of 1,110,000 graduates from tertiary institutions and about 10% that is 100,000 graduates were formally employed, one million might be openly employed or underemployed.

Nwadiani (1991) in lecture, said that “Employment discrimination had led to status frustration”. He went further to explain that parents sent their children to school and at the end of the day; the graduates are thrown into the labour market for a long period of time. Parents send their children to school and struggle to train them because they know that the progress of any country is directly related to the educational level of its people, again the level of economic development depends on the excellence of the educated ones in the country.

The problem of employment discrimination started in early sixties, when Nigeria had oil. At that time, Nigeria had abundant resources that Gowon when about building sky crapers, having developmental plans, paying the workers of west India and training the awards of Tanzania and embarking on frivolous payment of Udoji’s Award (Ibude, 1996). Gowon misused Nigeria resources so much that he once said “Nigeria has money but how to spend it as the problem”

Murtala took over from Gowon and at that time, the economy of the nation was in shamble, but it has not degenerated to that of employment discrimination (unemployment). For the Polytechnic, university and NCE graduates were interviews on the eve of graduation and most of them ended up with three or four choice of job or employment opportunities. At that time, there was no dichotomy between state and federal job.

1.1 Background Of The Institution Under Study. National Directorate Of Employment (NDE)

According to officers of National Directorate of Employment Headquarters of Lagos, it is notices that Nigeria unemployment population since 1980 has a growing rate of two and half million.

The figure of employment discrimination (unemployment) comprises mainly the youth. This situation was becoming alarming when in 1986, the federal government appointed a committee to deliberate on strategies of dealing with the prevailing unemployment problem. It was on the recommendation of this committee that national directorate of employment was formed by president Babangida of January 30, 1987. the fact of lack of skills among these literate unemployed youths makes a case against the undeserved deficiency in the educational policy and system, thereby giving rise and impetus to the make up, driven National Directorate of employment that have the following objectives:

  1. To encourage self employment after training.
  2. To develop a pool of potential entrepreneur that are well equipped to manage their own small scale industries
  3. To upgrade the status of Nigeria youths
  4. To reduce the dependency on government and large firms for salaries employment.
  5. To stimulate rural development.

Statistical figure from (NDE) headquarters Lagos as reported by Ezeolisah (1991) showed that about 209,735 people have been attached to training organization since the programme which took off as at May (1997, 1999) of these people have graduates of which 8,000 have set up their own business and each of them in expended to employ as least two persons.

However, since the inception of the directorate, it has not been dwindling, though several people are today self employed, there are still many others roaming about the streets.

Ezeolisah (1991) quoted NDE director Alhaji Umar by saying that directorate cannot possibly provide job for all the unemployed in a situation where our educational institution keep producing thousands of graduates each year.

1.2 Statement Of The Problem

In the course of this research work, there were lots of problems discovered to be associated with employment discrimination on Polytechnic on Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria which can be stated thus:

  1. Why are the Polytechnic graduates discriminated?
  2. What led to the discrimination of the graduates?
  3. Is this problems of employment discrimination of the graduates’ national policy or is it an organizational issue?
  4. What are the effects of this employment discrimination on the perspective applicant and as well as our nation Nigeria?

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The objectives of this research/ study is as follows:

  1. To identify some major problems of employment discrimination in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the extent of employment discrimination on Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria as it affects the social life of the people.
  3. To identify some solution to the employment discrimination in Nigeria.
  4. To make recommendation and suggestion on how the problems of employment discrimination could be checked.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions will be carried out in this project work.

  1. Does employment discrimination on Polytechnic graduates have any social effect in the society?
  2. What are the causes of employment discrimination among the Polytechnic graduates in Nigeria.?
  3. Are the Polytechnics certificate inferior to the of University certificates?
  4. Is Polytechnic graduates employment discrimination a national policy?
  5. What are the causes of this discrimination?
  6. What are the consequences of Polytechnic graduates discrimination?
  7. Is this discrimination development oriented?
  8. What is to be done to remedy this ugly situation?

1.5 Significant Of The Study

The significant of this study is to discuss the Polytechnic employment discrimination in Nigeria.
The study will provide useful insight on the problem of unemployment in Nigeria. The study of this nature will enable the general public and the government to be aware of the overall effects of employment discrimination in Nigeria, and also be of immense value to the labour officer in assessing and ascertaining the course of employment discrimination in Nigeria, also to enable the government of the day to create an avenue for employment.

Also, it will enable the government of the day to assess the sociological and psychological implication of employment discrimination and also enable the general public to realize the hazards encountered by not been employed, it will also enable the general public and the government to control the population growth, family size through the introduction of census.

1.6 Scope Of The Study

This research work focuses on the effects of employment discrimination on polytechnic graduates in Nigeria. It also leads to bring out both the economic, social, environment and political effects of the employment discrimination in Nigeria, which has caused a great problem and societal degradation in Nigeria.

Also, this research work is aimed at knowing or finding out every thing about employment discrimination hence it is concerned with it (employment discrimination). However, it tends to find out the effects of this employment discrimination and the preventive measures for future.

1.7 Limitation Of The Study

Although the researcher encountered so many financial problems on the long run which is the major limitation of this study and this is/was because of the depressed economy and the global economic melt down ravaging the financial joyance of most nations.

Also, the large area involved is/was one of the major/serious problems also encountered in this research work.

Another main problem also encountered was delay in as semblance of the questionnaire.

1.8 Definition Of Terms


This is an institution for advanced full time and part time education.


This is said to be one who has completed a course in an educational institution of higher school.


This is an act of treating particular group of person unfairly, i.e giving special or different treatment to a certain group of people to the detriment of others.


A state of not being able to get or job opportunity.


Dividing into two.

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

The problem of employment discrimination coupled with unemployment as a result of certificate discrimination in Nigeria has resulted to so many and diverse problems and upheavals in Nigeria as discovered and reviewed in this research work which even today is the cause/one of the major causes of the ongoing strike in Nigeria.

From the look of things, it seems the government of the day have given deaf ear to this cankerworm that has eaten deep in Nigeria education system and created apathy among our graduates but from the researchers view it will be more commendable to equalize the Nigerian (polytechnic and universities) certificate to bring peace and unity in Nigeria again.

5.2 Summary Of Findings

However, this research work focused on employment discrimination problems facing graduates, specifically the polytechnic graduates in Nigeria, the study has given a compendium of the causes of discrimination in Nigeria ranging from proliferate of schools and mass production of graduates.

Other important factors are high birth rate, lack of planning on the government, rural-urban migration, geographical immobility of labour and many others.

From the questionnaire that was distributed and retrieved from the respondents, it was found that inadequate planning and inability of the government to execute the policies has contributed strongly to discrimination/unemployment in Nigeria, lack of industrial base and factories, incessant establishment of schools, mass production of graduates, immobility of labour.

Finally, it was discovered that polytechnic graduates who are not employed engage themselves in social malpractices which affect the development of the nation and also scares foreign investors away from investing in the country, and this is the more reason why employment discrimination should be aborted out in Nigeria.

5.3 Conclusion

From the study, the researcher discovered that the rate of employment discrimination in Nigeria is very high. The government of the day is now trying their best to make sure that the level of discrimination is reduced in Nigeria. The government can do this by creating employment opportunities for the citizens who has graduated.

By way of closure, I must emphasize that there is need to re-think, re-sure our attainment of the objective of constructive education, which is worth using ones brain and hands typifies, is not by any means helped by over-reliance on paper qualifications by the employers of labour and the society at large. The time is generally coming and that what is done now would determine what you get. A total new average of course and programme in the polytechnics to complement the present curricular. Such courses should not only have bearing and adaptation to our petulancies and national need should be of merchantable value to the global market.

Polytechnics should have a complete understanding of the basic operational procedure of all contiguous industries with a view to refocusing on the practical class to the area of need and relevance to the or for mutual afavantage. Also establishment should vigorously pursue to enhance student training in self employment.

5.4 Recommendation

An idle mind they say is the devil’s workshop, also a hungry man they say is an angry man, this implies that if graduates are gainfully employed, there will be no need to take to crime in the society. Therefore the research hereby recommends that:

  1. The National Directorate of Employment (NDE) should endeavour to provide jobs for the unemployed graduates.
  2. The government should provide guidelines and courses that should match the jobs available in the country.
  3. Agricultural sectors be given gace lift as a major employer of labour in Nigeria, in respect to this the federal government, state and local should undertake the training of agricultural extension on new productive methods.
  4. The government should also organize workshops that would involve the ministry of employment and producing services that would help to curb unemployment in Nigeria.
  5. Also, the polytechnic should be encouraged to develop to the highest level of educational sophistication whereby they can be awarded bachelor of technology (B. Tech) degree and offer post graduate programmes in different discipline.

If all these suggestions should be put in practice, the gap between polytechnic and university would be bridged.

The Effect Of Employment Discrimination On Polytechnic Graduates In Nigeria; An Analysis

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