Effect Of E-Commerce On Performance Of Retail Business Organizations In Obi Akpo, Port-Harcourt

Project and Seminar Material for Business Administration and Management BAM

Effect Of E-Commerce On Performance Of Retail Business Organizations In Obi Akpo, Port-Harcourt (Charles)


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations in Obi-Akpo Port-harcourt.. The study was carried out to find out the extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria, ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance, find out the factors militating against the adoption of e-commerce in retail business, and determine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of staff of Konga in Obi-Akpo, Port-harcourt. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 41 respondents and 35 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables and mean scores. While the hypotheses were tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that the extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria is high. Furthermore, the result of the findings reveals that E-commerce has a significant effect on performance of retail business organizations as it reduces cost of operations, it helps to facilitates operation efficiency, helps to establish and sustain new customer base, improves market share, and enhances business profitability. Therefore, it is recommended that organizations into e-commerce should opt for flexible technology that help sell products and services online such as a shopping cart, payment processing systems, and inventory management tools. To mention but a few.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

E-commerce is simply described as business done over the Internet. It could be buying or selling or a combination of both. It could be product, service or a combination of both. E-Commerce is an innovation which has emerged in parallel to the development of communication and computer technologies. It has the potential for revolutionizing the whole structure of retail merchandising the shopping. Although it is a new concept, it does not only suggest an alternative to the conventional commerce but also acts as a method that currently complements and facilitates commerce.In recent years, the business world has been characterized, among other things, by an increasing competitiveness, market globalization, continual technological advances and changes in work organization; therefore, the survival of a company implies the prosecution of sustainable competitive advantages. Theories placing the origin of these advantages outside the company are now losing validity in favour of those centred on internal elements, especially the theory of resources and capacities. Advances in information technology (IT) have transformed many firms in professional services industries, but perhaps none as much as those in the public accounting and management industry. The introduction of Information and communication technologies (ICTs) has changed the way business is done. Electronic commerce is one such technology that enables organisations to create business relationships,share business information and do business via telecommunications networks.E-commerce activities are basically classified as Business-to-Business (B2B) and Business-to-Consumer (B2C). Business-to-business involves using the Internet to facilitate supply-chain operations and include electronic data interchange (EDI), electronic funds transfer, electronic forms and messaging, and shared databases between business organizations. Business-to-Consumer e-commerce uses the Internet as a retail market channel and in the case of information, as a product or service delivery channel. In Business-to-Consumer (B2C) e-commerce the business transactions are between businesses and consumers where a business entity like Konga supplies goods or services directly to individual consumers online.

Organisations are adopting B2C e-commerce as a means of increasing sales, reducing costs, having a competitive advantage over competitors in the industry and expanding markets. Other models include Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) which enables people sell their assets such as real estate property, cars or even rent an apartment directly from another consumer; Consumer-to-Business (C2B) where the consumer advertises in a website what price he/she is prepared to pay for a service, product or loan and business organizations can respond accordingly; Business-to-Government (B2G) where government allows organizations to reach it with their goods and services on websites; Government-to-Business (G2B) which enables government to reach businesses for auction sales, tenders for contracts and such other applications for supplies. There is also Government-to-Citizen (G2C) – Government uses this model to reach citizens for either auction sales of such items like vehicles and machinery and for services such as birth registration, marriage and death certificates, thereby reducing average time for meeting citizens’ requests for government services and in the process improving revenue generation. E-commerce, reported Garret (2007), grew exponentially and was still growing at an annual rate of 25 percent. The unique features include ubiquity – Web technology available everywhere (at work, home, anytime, anywhere); market place removed from geographical locations to become
“market space”. Another is global reach – across national and cultural boundaries with market space involving billions of consumers and millions of businesses worldwide. It builds on traditional commerce by adding flexibility and speed offered by electronic communications. This can facilitate improvement in operations leading to substantial cost savings as well as increased competitiveness and efficiency through the redesign of traditional business methods. It is not just about using new technologies. It will involve creating more effective external interactions with customers, clients, collaborators and suppliers, but it can also mean improving internal business efficiency and even the emergence of new products and services. Thus, the effective use of e-commerce is expected to improve on the organization’s performance. The major goal of every organization is to improve on profitability through quick delivery of products and improved customer satisfaction. E-commerce has become such a tool to achieve this goal.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

In the present globalization scenario, information technology is the most important and controversial term. Despite the global reach of e-commerce, not all countries have taken advantage of or benefited from e-commerce. There is a big gap in internet and e-commerce adoption between the developed and developing countries; thus creating a digital divide. A lot of researches have been conducted in the developed countries to examine the level of penetration of e-commerce and its effect on organizational performance. However, their findings could not be generalized due to the differences between developed and developing countries (such as available infrastructure, social and cultural issues). Recently, companies such as Konga, Jumia,Jiji and OLX have attempted to penetrate the Nigeria economy through e-commerce service, while their performance is relatively unknown hence the need for this study.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objectives of the study is to examine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations in Obi-Akpo, Port-harcourt. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of the study are:

  1. Find out the extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria.
  2. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance.
  3. Find out the factors militating against the adoption of e-commerce in retail business.
  4. Determine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions which are in line with the objectives of the study will be answered in this study:

  1. What is the extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria?
  2. Is there a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance?
  3. What are the factors militating against the adoption of e-commerce in retail business?
  4. What are the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • Ho: There is no significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance.

1.6 Significance Of The Study

This study will be of great help to managements, government and customers, business organizations: This study will bring to fore the global trend, market base in Nigeria and advantages of E-commerce in making decisions to market their products and services.

Government:

Government is expected to benefit from this study as it aims to reveal the constraints to full implementation of e-commerce. The Nigerian government is expected to use this study as a policy framework in providing conducive environment for the development of e-commerce in the Nigerian society.

Academia:

It will also aid students and researchers alike who would want to carry out a research in this area of study.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will be focused on the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations in Obi-Akpo, Port-harcourt. Hence this study will be delimited to Konga online market.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

This study was constrained by a number of factors which are as follows:

Just like any other research, ranging from unavailability of needed accurate materials on the topic under study, inability to get data

  • Financial constraint, was faced by  the researcher ,in getting relevant materials  and  in printing and collation of questionnaires
  • Time factor: time factor pose another constraint since having to shuttle between writing of the research and also engaging in other academic work making it uneasy for the researcher

1.9 Definition of Terms

E-Commerce:

Electronic commerce (ecommerce) refers to a business model that allows companies and individuals to buy and sell goods and services over the Internet.


1.10 Organizations of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations in Obi-Akpo, Port-harcourt. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations in Obi-Akpo Port-harcourt. The study was specifically carried out to find out the extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria, ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance, find out the factors militating against the adoption of e-commerce in retail business, and determine the effect of e-commerce on performance of retail business organizations.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 35 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent were staff of Konga in Obi-Akpo, Port-harcourt.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. The extent e-commerce business model is adopted among retail business organizations in Nigeria is high.
  2. There is a significant relationship between e-commerce and organizational performance.
  3. The factors militating against the adoption of e-commerce in retail business includes: poor security associated with payment method, poor or uncertainty in the quality of products bought online, organizational competency, Poor delivery issues, which can result from poor transport system or poor service delivery from sellers. and IT capability, economic condition and government regulations, and perceived complexity, supporting industries and market.
  4. E-commerce has a significant effect on performance of retail business organizations as it reduces cost of operations, it helps to facilitates operation efficiency, helps to establish and sustain new customer base, improves market share, and enhances business profitability.

5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. Organizations into e-commerce should opt for flexible technology that help sell products and services online such as a shopping cart, payment processing systems, and inventory management tools,
  2. Government should assist in making favorable policies that better the economy and ensure friendly regulations, and
  3. E-commerce businesses should endeavour to create a seamless brand experience.
  4. E-commerce businesses should involve promotional tactics to drive traffic to an online store. A well-thought-out marketing plan, coupled with an engaging website, can convert visitors into paying customers, help businesses retain them and increase their overall customer lifetime value (CLV).
  5. E-commerce businesses should ensure security of payment on their websit, elight customers, surprise shoppers, build a community, up their social media game, follow an impactful content strategy, deliver an omnichannel Customer experience. and Personalize Customer Experience.

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