The Effect Of Dispute Management And Cultural Diversity On Employee Performance
This study was carried out on the effect of dispute management and cultural diversity on employee performance using Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State as a case study. The study was carried out to examine the relationship between dispute management and employee performance, examine the relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance and identify factors that promotes employee performance. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of employees of Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 147 respondents and 141 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The hypotheses was tested using Pearson correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant relationship between dispute management and employee performance. The study also revealed that the factors that promotes employee performance includes: leadership style, corporate performance, team work, effective communication and motivational schemes.Therefore, it is recommended thatthe organization should make efforts on creating awareness and conducting trainings touching on workplace diversity since most of the staff did not think the organization has invested enough in sensitizing employees. To mention but few.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Significance of the Study
- 1.6 Scope of the Study
- 1.7 Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organizations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
Fadipe (2000) sees dispute as a form of disagreement in an establishment between two individuals or groups who have cause to interact formally or informally. Similarly, Miller and King (2005), see it as basically a disagreement between two or more individuals or groups over compatible goals. Dispute therefore is a process of incompatible behaviours. It may involve the interference or disruption by one person or group of persons, or in some way or ways which make another action less likely to be effective.
According to Deutsch (1973), dispute inevitably means that people are working against each other, in such a manner that what one wants is incompatible with that which another wants. It could bring about competition in the pursuit of goals. What the competitor gets comes at the expense of others or the job. It is therefore counter-productive, disruptive, unnatural, and produces a deviation from the free flow of events. A major factor that can throw parties into a state of incompatibility is their perception of the issue at hand or issue of interest. There are other factors that can contribute to the creation of dispute in organizations like task interdependence, scarce resources, goal incompatibility, communication failures, individual differences (or cultural differences) and poorly designed reward system (Ngbekem, 2004).
Dispute is a necessary and useful part of organizational life. It is inevitable and an integral part of the process of change. Indeed, it is an aid to cooperation, not an obstacle. There are two sides to dispute, one is destructive and unhealthy and the other has a problem-solving base where those involved are willing to sublimate personality and cultural differences, to listen to others’ views and to be open and candid to each other, to be supportive and helpful whereas the former defeats cooperation.
Albert (2001) averred that there are productive and destructive disputes. According to him, “A dispute is said to be positive when it is constructively discussed by the parties and amicable terms for settlement reached”.
Constructively managed disputes induces a positive performance while poorly managed disputes heats up the environment to bring about ‘dislocation of the entire group and polarization, reduced productivity on employee performance, psychological and physical injury, emotional distress and inability to sleep, interference with problem activities, escalation of differences into antagonistic position and malice and increased hostility (Akaniji, 2005). Through disputes management a cooperative atmosphere is created for promoting opportunities and movement directed towards non-violent, reconciliation or basic clashing interest.
However, no matter how one looks at dispute, it is important to realize that dispute is one of the best ways in the world to turn the tide and improve unsatisfactory conditions. As a matter of fact, sometimes there may be no real dispute to be managed, but there may be need for greater understanding, cooperation and team work to promote interpersonal harmony and good organizational climate for teaching and learning. Therefore, dispute should not always be seen as something undesirable but rather as a necessary outcome that can bring positive consequences if properly managed.
Cultural diversity is a characteristic of groups of two or more people and typically refers to demographic differences of one sort or another among group members (McGrath, Berdahl, and Arrow, 1995). Researchers have generated numerous dimensions for classifying demographic differences, often positing different outcomes for people and work groups, depending on the degree and nature of those differences. Pelled (1996) made one set of predictions about the impact of racial diversity among group members and another about the impact of functional background diversity, based on the visibility of race and the job-relatedness of functional background. Others have distinguished among the effects of diversity depending on whether differences are cultural (Cox, 1993; Larkey, 1996), physical (Strangor et al., 1992), inherent and immutable (Maznevski, 1994), or role-related (Maznevski, 1994; Pelled, 1996).
Perhaps more importantly, researchers’ predictions about any one diversity variable differ depending on which of its dimensions they see as critical to determining its impact. Pelled (1996) predicted that racial diversity, as a source of visible differences, would incite intergroup bias and lead to negative outcomes for work groups, while Cox, Lobel, and McLeod (1991) predicted that racial diversity, as a source of cultural differences, would enhance creative problem solving and lead to positive outcomes for work groups. Maznevski (1994) suggested that racial diversity, as a source of inherent and immutable differences would provide groups with different kinds of information from which they could potentially benefit, but such differences would often be difficult for parties to understand and accept. As these examples illustrate, both the types and dimensions of demographic variables in which one is interested shape one’s inquiry. It is against this background that it becomes pertinent to examine the effect of dispute management and cultural diversity on employee performance.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Dispute emerges in an organization when an individual perceives that his goals are threatened or hindered by the activities of another person. Most disputes an organization arises from the inability of the company to fulfill its collective agreement with its employees resulting in employees embarking on industrial action which may be work-to-rule or total strike. Employees’ industrial action usually results in loss of man-hours, machine-hours, output, skilled personnel, employees’ morale and organizational reputation. More often, cultural differences among employees sometimes lead to dispute in an organization.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The following are the objectives of this study:
- To examine the relationship between dispute management and employee performance.
- To examine the relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance.
- To identify factors that promotes employee performance.
1.4 Research Questions
- Is there a significant relationship between dispute management and employee performance?
- Is there a significant relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance?
- What are the factors that promotes employee performance?
- Leadership style
- Corporate performance
- Team work
- Effective communication
- Motivational schemes
1.5 Research Hypothesis
- HO1: There is no significant relationship between dispute management and employee performance
- HO2: There is no significant relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance
1.6 Significance of the Study
The following are the significance of this study:
Findings from this study will educate the business managers and the general public on the effect of dispute management and cultural diversity on employee performance.
This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study will cover the relationship between dispute management and employee performance. It will also cover the relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance. The study will be delimited to Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researchers encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. The significant constraint was the scanty literature on the subject owing that no recent study was conducted on communication method in organizational efficiency thus the researcher incurred more financial expenses and much time was required in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. Additionally, the researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. However in spite of the constraint, all were downplayed by the researcher while ensuring that the best is given.
1.9 Definition of the Terms
Workers efficiency which will finally improve on production of the organization.
Is a man’s medium that forms the human life of an individual Employee.
Diversity is the differences in race, gender, class, ethnicity, physical ability, religion, sexual orientation and educational level of individuals.
1.10 Organizations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, and selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of dispute management and cultural diversity on employee performance using Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of dispute management and cultural diversity on employee performance using Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State as a case study. The study is was specifically set to examine the relationship between dispute management and employee performance, examine the relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance and identify factors that promotes employee performance.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 141 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent areemployees of Global Com, Headquarters, Lagos State.
In the light of the analysis carried out, the following conclusions were drawn.
- There is a significant relationship between dispute management and employee performance.
- There is a significant relationship between cultural diversity and employee performance.
- The factors that promotes employee performance includes: leadership style, corporate performance, team work, effective communication and motivational schemes.
The following recommendations were proffered with respect to the findings of the study;
- Employees should also be made to understand that achieving unity despite cultural differences is the responsibility of every member of the organization. In addition, there should be periodic evaluation of the strategies to ensure they are having the desired outcomes. When such strategies are properly and successfully implemented, the positive influence of cultural diversity will manifest and enable members of the organization to build relationships and acknowledge each other regardless of the differences of origin and background.
- The organization should make efforts on creating awareness and conducting trainings touching on workplace diversity since most of the staff did not think the organization has invested enough in sensitizing employees.
- The organization should focus on assigning tasks to employees possessing relevant skills and trainings to enhance performance. Most of the employees confirmed that they were not assigned tasks that they had been trained on both at the workplace and in college. Therefore, performance at the organization would be enhanced if they were applying their skills and expertise.
- The organization should organize team building activities to ensure that the staff who are unsure of the effect of age diversity on lack of bonding are engaged with staff of different age groups both at a professional and a social level.
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