The Effect Of Cultism On Students Academic Performance (A Case Study Of The College Of Education Ekiadolor, Benin City, Edo State)
The research work focused on the effects of cultism on students’ academic performance a case study of college of education, Ekiadolor-Benin. The research work consists of five chapters. The chapter entitles chapter one an introduction and scope of study, chapter two covers the review of literature, which covers the various effects of cultism on students’ performance. Chapter three examines research methodology covering sampling procedures and method of data analysis. Chapter four, this cover the presentation of data analysis, chapter five hold on the summary, conclusion, questionnaires structured question asked during the oral interview and recommendations consequently, the research work was completed with references slighted during the research work.
1.1 Background of the Study
According to oxford dictionary of current English the word ‘cult” means a system of religious worship especially one that is exposed in rituals. From this definition, cults have now popularly known as “confraternity” has assumed a monstrous feature in our various institutions of learning. This is because international figures have been known to be members of the pirate confraternity in their college or institutions. Furthermore, Kolawole et al (2000) said that when there was a violent crash between the eye confraternity and the buccaneers at the university of Ibadan in 1989, some notable professors and doctors at the institutions were found to be patrons and bankers of these cults. The implications are that these professors and doctors were members of these cults in their own college days.
It is now common in our campuses that factors of naval cults violence clash ever in broad day knight and mats themselves with dangerous weapons such as guns and daggers. The recent occurrence are the university of Ife, Benin, Ekpoma, Ibadan, college of Education Ekiadolor against the social ill calling to its total eradication. Secrete cults societies could be traced down to the Egyptians. The magicians in their request for more power used some cultic devices they formed a school of taught which was mostly based on intellectual objectives, which is mainly to enhance their cultic prowess. Initiations are conducted for people that want to belong to a particular set of masquerade are observed thoroughly by its members. One initiated, the secrete concerning the masquerade are observed thoroughly by its members. In the late 40’s the higher institutions in Nigeria were not associated with secrete societies. The first higher school secrete cult in Nigeria came into existence in 1952 when a group of seven (7) students lead by Wole Soyinka Olumuyiwa, Awe, Raph, Opora, Dir Aif-Imokhunede, Junji Tubi and Oly Agunoloye formed the sea dogs confraternity (AKA Pirates) in the university of Ibadan. There was nothing secreted then when it was newly introduced. The main reason of forming the cult was to fight colonialism ensuring the dignity of man and ride the Nigeria society of elitism and tribalism. Its members engage in humanitarian activities such as donations of blood to hospitals to save lives and assist the helpless in the society also, an attempt to fight any attempted oppress students by any lecturers or the school management trying to impose oppressive policies on the students, “everything we did then was healthy, firm, harmless and above board”. Recall Muyiwa Awe, one of the founding fathers their confraternity were legitimate and officially recognized by the school authority and the government of the time. Cultism could simply be described as a kind of gang behaviour that is contrary to the acceptable norms and value of the large society and its characters by oath taking, secrecy and violence. According to Hornsby (2001) it is also system of religious worship, a devotion to a person or practice and ritual especially of a single diet.
However, that is where the similarities ends as there is indeed a distinction between the two for instance “secrete society” is defined in section 31% of the constitution of the federal republic of Nigeria 1999 as including any secrete association group or body of persons (whether registered or not).
That uses secrete signs, oaths, rites or symbols and which is formed to promote on course the purpose or part of the purpose of which is to foster the interest of its members and to aid one another under any circumstances without due regard to merit fqair play or justice to the detriment of the legitimate interest of those who are not members.
The members are shown to observe oaths of secrecy or the activities of which are not known to the public at large, the names of whose members are kept secret and whose meeting and other activities are held in secrete. Although there is no definition in the constitution. The definition given to it in the secrete cult and similar activities (prohibition) law 2004 recently passed in the River State House of Assembly in 18 instructive as it clearly shown the popularity in Nigeria of the non academic every day usage of the phrase. That law defined secrete cult as follows ‘it means an organisation, association, group of body or person (whether or not listed) whose membership meeting and others activities are kept secrete and which promote causes or engage in acts of violence or harm.
From the definition above, definition above, it can be seen that the essential difference between the two notions is the dominant element of violence in the definition of secrete cult, which element is not necessarily present in that of the secrete society.
1.2 The Statement of the Problems
The fundamental problems of cultism are the uncertain and unsafe atmosphere in our campuses. Ewa to the activities of members, of secrete cult, the manner of operation is both sinister inn our campuses in recent times of cultism whose phenomena seen to be going more and prominence on our campuses. This researcher intend to make an in-depth study into the factors which created the on hearty climate that encourage the growth and spread of cultism in our institution of learning with a view to proffer solution to the problems.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of cultism on student’s emotions. A case study if the College of Education Ekiadolor-Benin with the view to educate the public about magnitude of the problems. It will also examine the factors that promote the growth of cultism in our institutions of higher learning. Furthermore, it will also help to know its sanctions placed on students by the school outward contribution to the growth of cultism in our institution of higher learning. Lastly, it will examine how cultism affects the intellectual ability of the students.
1.4 Significance of the Study
This study will provide explanatory terms. The factors, which creates the hearty and implementers of policies with the factors that influence cultism and school and the effect on the emotion of students. Then when known will enable them to combat squarely and help eradicate the problems that have become a cankerworm in our institutions of higher learning. It is important to state clearly that this project work will also highlight some of the causes of cultism, factors that promote the growth of cultism, and conclusively, provide solution on how the problems of cultism can be solved in our higher institutions of learning.
1.5 Research Questions
- Does lack of parental care promote the growth of cultism in our contemporary schools?
- Does cultism affect the emotion of students?
- Does sanction from school contributes to the growth of cultism in school?
- Does cultism affect the intellectual ability of the students in school?
1.6 Scope of Study
This study will involve the total scope of study of the College of Education Ekiadolor students in Benin City.
1.7 Definitions of Terms
A system of religious worship especially one that is expressed in rituals.
It is the state/phenomenon where a person is bound together with common belief.
An action, manner that appears to be genuine or sincere but is not.
The act of initiating or the process of being initiated into a group or an activity.
To murder an important person especially for political reasons.
The act of seeking or a long search or to find.
Not caring about other people’s feelings or suffering.
A sudden disaster that causes many people to suffer.
Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation
This study was embarked upon to analysed cultism, its effects on students emotions in the college of Education Ekiadolor, Benin. In the course of this research work a set of questionnaires was prepared and distributed and the instrument used for data collection was used to invalidate the statement. The response made by various participants were collected, arranged in tabular forms and analyzed by simple percentage. Based on the findings of the research work the researchers made a conclusion and recommendations.
5.2 Research Findings
Based on the result of the analysis of data collected for the research work and the subsequent simple percentage workings outcome, the findings have shown that:
- Cultism still exists in colleges.
- It was revealed that 67% of the respondents were on the opinion that cultism can affect the emotional stability of students in the colleges. This confirmed that the government or board of educators should look into this and try there very best to eradicate cultism from school in order for students to walk in the college without fear or trembling.
- Cultism has turned some students to killer, rapist, trouble makers, behave dangerously to parents at home due to the taking of drugs like cocaine, cigarettes and oath e.g. drinking of blood mixed with red like.
- Any caught cultism should be dismissed from the school premises and be made an ex-convict in order not to be useful in other universities and colleges.
In the light of the above findings already discussed, the following conclusions are drawn that the alarming spread of cultism on campuses throughout the reiteration has generally conflicting reports, pains, death, public reproach etc cultism has endangered the lives of many people in our campuses today due to cultism activities. It has been a social problem in our society, it has caused a lot of havoc. Many lives have been lost that would have contributed to the development of our nation.
The effect of cultism on student’s emotions today has made the students unsafe for hearty academic work to takes place. This is because most students are even driven home by these cult members whenever there are conflicts among different cult groups. The alarming growth of cultism has been a great concern to the government, public agencies, voluntary bodies, and churches etc this have small measures to curtail the activities of cultist in our campuses by enacting laws, preaching the gospel, cultism can be minimized if not eradicated, if we take the postulations in this study in order to put a stop to the threatened existence of students lives and thus make them live in peace and in a conducive atmosphere in the environment.
5.4 Suggestion for Further Studies
Though this has revealed various factors influencing the growth of cultism in schools, it has nevertheless opened doors for further studies as this study was constrained essentially by time and finance uses limited the scope of the College of Education, Ekiadolor – Benin.
In the light of the above, further studies could be extended to larger population are over the state i.e. Edo, to have a fairly representative sample that will make for a better and well-informed judgment. These studies could be undertaken at the secondary school level or tertiary level that will furthermore studies could be conducted in the following areas;
- The role of government in curtailing the growth of cultism in schools
- The extra ordinary influence of cultism in the larger society
- The role of parents in the fight against cultism in schools.
In the light of the findings of this study, the researcher thereby recommends the following:
- Government should enact and implement laws that will make membership of secrete cults by parents and other members of the larger society illegally.
- The authorities should monitor all registered clubs and organisation.
- A constant orientation programmes should be organized for the general students in the school.
- All students found to be member of secrete cult should have their identities published in both national print and electronic media along with sanctions appropriated. This will go along way in deciding the excess of children from the supposed affluent and famous families.
- The fear of God should be inculcated into the hearts of the youths it is very important. The fear of God gives genuine, strong, truthful and beneficial behaviour to anyone.
- Government should make laws that will ensure that any students found to be a member of any secrete cult should not be spared by been expelled from the institutions. Such students should be tried for criminal activities and sentenced to appropriated jail terms such person there after be treated ex-convict who cannot attend any other institution of higher learning in Nigeria.
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