Effect Of Covid-19 On Food Vendors

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Effect Of Covid-19 On Food Vendors


Abstract


Entrepreneurs form an integral part of an economy to stabilize and bring a balance in the development of a nation’s economy. A nation’s per capita income is also affected by these entrepreneurs which includes the food vendors, who although have low investment in their activities but tends to serve some of the basic necessities to the people residing in an economy. Importance of the food vending is not only limited to the importance of raising the per capita income of a country but it also serves to bring a source of livelihood with limited investment to the unemployed section of the society. These food vendors, acting as a sole bread earner, serve to be independent on their own cause for supporting their families. An impact on their line of business from any manner severely hampers their daily income making them helpless in their stand. Very little support is availed by them from Government Institutions or from any Intermediaries be it NGO’s or other association. It is always predicted that they are able to have their own source of livelihood and hence would not face any difficulties in relation to earnings but the same is counteracted by the food vendors when asked to them about the difficulties they encounter on daily basis. The recent situation of COVID 19 pandemic have altered as well as halted most of the food vendors’ trade activities. In this research, the researcher aims to focus on effects of COVID-19 on food vendors in Enugu state. The study emphasises the need to understand their problems and the ways to tackle such disruptions which shall led to the better cause of the economy.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Question
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Epidemiology Of Covid Globally And In Nigeria
  • 2.3 Pathophysiology Of Covid With Diagram Showing Life Cycle
  • 2.4 Mode Of Transmission
  • 2.5 Signs And Symptoms
  • 2.6 Risk Factors Of Covid
  • 2.7 Diagnosis
  • 2.7.1 Laboratory Diagnosis
  • 2.7.2 Other Diagnosis
  • 2.8 Prevention And Treatment
  • 2.9 Covid-19 Impact On Food Supply Chain

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Designs
  • 3.2 Population Of The Study
  • 3.3 Mode Of Sampling
  • 3.4 Instruments For Data Collection
  • 3.5 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Pandemics are not exactly a novel phenomenon strictly related to the current modern societies as they were recorded since ancient times. Each pandemic triggered major changes in economics, regional and global policies, social behavior, and citizens’ mentalities as well. The most significant changes (which have been preserved over the medium term and long term) have been those institutionalized [1]. By contrast, the changes which were least preserved are related to mentalities and social behavior as the institutionalized modifications [2], through public policies, were not sufficiently coupled and consolidated with the psychosocial changes [3]. Like any other pandemics, COVID-19 has caused significant changes on all levels of contemporary society [4–9]. All states; continents; regions; urban and rural communities; families; and ultimately, thinking and lifestyle of each individual have been impacted by the pandemic [10–14], and we may never return to the normality previously experienced before COVID-19 [15,16].

At the same time, each pandemic in recorded history had immediate effects on the primary reactions of the social human, because they affected directly health, financial security, life quality and food security [17]. For instance, when cholera or the Spanish flu hit, the economic balance and food supply systems broke and caused famine as an immediate effect [18]. The COVID-19 pandemic has largely fit the same profile, although there are specific differences. This time there have not been major negative effects on food security recorded, except for the underdeveloped and developing countries. Meanwhile, developed economies have not faced serious problems in terms of global food security [19,20]. Inherently, there were individual problems, especially in the case of quarantined people with low and very low income [21]. Nevertheless, the concern for food security has turned into concern for food safety as the public focus of developed countries transitioned to issues such as healthy eating.
However, all pandemics share the demographic vector of disease spread. During the Middle Ages, the pandemic would be transmitted from one part of Europe to another by the people who fled the outbreak [18]. The Amerindian population were decimated by the diseases brought by the European explorers, as they lacked any inherited immunity to the infectious diseases of Europe (in this case, Tzvetan Todorov says that the first globalization was the spread of the viruses [22]). The Spanish flu spread mainly due to the movement of soldiers from the WWI (as they came home back in 1918, they spread the pandemic globally) [23]. The COVID-19 pandemic has been largely triggered by population density [24,25], high degree of mobility of humans, and mass socialization, as well as cultural, social, and tourism events [26–28]. Consequently, the measures taken by most world states have addressed issues such as quarantine and isolation, more precisely the enforced social isolation of the population along with the economic isolation between various states or regions as well as between different economic sectors [29]. Hence, this lockdown has impeded the interactions among food systems incorporating every stage of food production and delivery.

In early 2020, the COVID-19 (caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus) pandemic shocked the world, almost bringing it to an unprecedented stop. The new coronavirus apparently started to spread (1) in China during December 2019, before moving to Thailand, Japan, the Republic of Korea (first confirmed cases on 20 January 2020), then to the United States, Vietnam, Singapore (2), and, at the end of January 2020, to Australia, Nepal, Europe (first cases in France on 25 January 2020 and later in Germany, Finland, Italy etc.), Malaysia, Canada, the Middle East, and other countries of the Western Pacific Region and South-East Asia Region, and (3) onwards to Russia, Africa, and Latin America (WHO, 2020). On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) declared the COVID-19 a pandemic (WHO, 2020). By 31 July 2020, COVID-19 had spread across 217+ countries and territories, with almost 17.1 million confirmed cases and 668,073 deaths. America then had confirmed 9.15 million cases, Europe 3.31 million, South-East Asia 2 million, Eastern Mediterranean 1.53 million, Africa 0.75 million, and the Western Pacific 0.31 million cases (WHO, 2020). The dire consequences of this pandemic are already being seen in a historic recession in most developed parts of the world, e.g., in the USA where in the second quarter of 2020, according to an early estimate, GDP plummeted annually by 32.9% while in the euro area GDP plunged by 12.1% and in the European Union (EU) by 11.9% over the previous quarter (Aristovnik, Keržič, Ravšelj, Tomaževič, & Umek, 2020).

As far as health is concerned, the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2) has affected all age groups, with the worst manifestations and highest death rates being found among older individuals and patients with comorbidities (Goldman, 2020). Besides bringing to the fore many (existing) problems and challenges in the area of health, the COVID-19 pandemic has created all manner of unanticipated turbulence in society and the economy (Cao, Fang, Hou, Han, Xu, Dong, & Zheng, 2020), like previous pandemics in history. Over the last few hundred years, pandemics, e.g., the bubonic plague, the Spanish flu, SARS, Ebola, influenza A (H1N1) etc., have been responsible for significant changes in geopolitical and demographic situations by altering patterns of migration, travel, urbanization, trade, and technology use (Liu, Bao, Huang, Shi, & Lu, 2020). A few months into the novel coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic, it has become clear that the corona crisis and its many consequences on all levels will last for years, thereby thoroughly impacting our lives forever. The challenges created by COVID-19 will in one way or another affect each and every one of us—the wellbeing of all groups in society in every affected country and globally (Brooks, Webster, Smith, Woodland, Wessely, Greenberg, & Rubin, 2020).

COVID 19, a pandemic in the present 21st century can be regarded as one of the challenging situation which the world have faced in an era where modern science have achieved the Zenith level be it in the field of medical science, innovations in technology, modern amenities to life, standard recreation outlets,etc. Amidst these new eye goggling developments and luxuries, a section of the inhabitants of the economy is engulfed in a situation where they were struggling for earning their livelihoods. The study which is taken into consideration lays prime focus on the livelihoods of the street vendors who have always remained as an integral part of a nation’s economy. To develop an economy, all round development from the nook and corners of the society is significant. Prior to the COVID-19 situation the street vendors created an augmented market environment whereby different necessities were availed at affordable and convenient manner.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Livelihoods of these street vendors were stabilized to a great extent and a regular source of income was being availed in a proper manner. The sudden outbreak of the pandemic situation which took the whole world into its grasp also had a negative impact on the lives of the street vendors and so most of them who used to have a regular source of income faced a discontinuation from earning their livelihood. At the very beginning the nationwide Lock down which was declared from 22nd March was dealt on by these street vendors in a nocturnal manner but what seemed it to be for a short period of time tends to surpasses days gradually bringing into halt all the economic activities. The severely affected section of people during this series of lockdown was the petty income earners, mostly the street vendors. Though it seemed to be a state of economy revival during the post lockdown phase but it depicted a state where the nation witnessed chaos for performing business activities in a deliberate manner. The street vendors had to face many hardships for earning their livelihoods efficiently and hence they have to grapple any opportunity which came in hand to make a better situation out of it.


1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The main aim of this study is to assess the effect of covid-a9 on food vendors. Specifically, the objectives are as follows;

  1. To study the effects of COVID 19 on the livelihoods of food vendors
  2. To study the food vendors’ views on street vending business activity post lockdown
  3. To study how COVID 19 pandemic have been dealt by the food vendors to resume their livelihoods during lockdown and post lockdown

1.4 Research Question

  1. What are the effects of COVID 19 on the livelihoods of food vendors?
  2. What are the food vendors’ views on street vending business activity post lockdown?
  3. How has COVID 19 pandemic been dealt with by the food vendors to resume their livelihoods during lockdown and post lockdown?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

  • HO: There is no significant influence of COVID 19 on food vendors and their businesses in Nigeria
  • HA: There is a significant influence of COVID 19 on food vendors and their businesses in Nigeria

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The findings of this study when published will be beneficial to students, educational institutions, government and regulatory authorities, and the society by providing recent data and information about the implications of COVID-19 pandemic lockdown on the activities of food vendors which will help promote the better perception and knowledge. Individuals will benefit from this study as data will reveal information on the implications of the pandemic on their activities. Also, the challenges and prospects of food vending business as a result of the pandemic will be evaluated which will improve the knowledge of the best strategies to adopt.

Also, the findings from this study will benefit the vendors by providing the information needed to improve and enhance quality care in light of COVID-19 and also identify factors affecting their practice of COVID-19 preventive measures. The findings of this study will provide recommendations for policymakers concerning how individuals and food vendors can be supported in the aftermath of the crisis created by the COVID-19 pandemic in Nigeria.
Theoretically, this study stands to provide additional knowledge to the body of existing literature on the implication of this pandemic to the food and retail sector among others in Nigeria. The result of this study will serve as good base or guide for future reference and it will also encourage further research on related areas. Lastly, the study will contribute to empirical literature and serve as future reference for further studies.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Food vendors are the entrepreneurs who start their business with minimal capital investment but their importance in an economy is very immense in nature. These food vendors (informal workers) serve as a hub to make available goods of every nature thereby setting a linkage with the formal economy. Many a times these food vendors face difficulties in their business activities be it at the vending site by the municipal authorities or unforeseen events which occurs on a daily basis creating a hindrance on their business activities. The survey has given an outlook to the food vendors’ life thathasfaced immense hardships and trouble to tackle the situation of an unplanned nationwide on-going Pandemic “Covid 19″situation. The state of business activity for food vendors to suitably adjust has undergone a vast change be it in relation to the decision to continue with their street vending activity and if the decision is to continue then their adjustments to the vending protocols to effectively run the business. In spite of the various problems persistent with the street vending activity and the new challenges that have been brought forward, most of the food vendors have shown their positive outlook to continue as a street vendor offering their services to the masses and successfully run their livelihood with an expectation that authorities which regulate the street vending activity would provide financial support and extend their contribution towards building the capabilities of the food vendors.


5.2 Recommendations

The Covid 19 Pandemic has almost hampered all the sections of the economy. The sudden outbreak of the situation which took the whole world into its grasp also had a negative effect on the food vendors and so most of them who use to have a regular source of income were cut off from their livelihood. There had been times during the lockdown period where the food vendors were deprived from the basic necessities of life. Although the service industry has resumed in the economy, in the post lockdown phase, still some restrictions are imposed by the Government hence it is most important for the Government to lay concerns over the matter and impose restrictions in a deliberate and conscious manner. Also financial support is most important by the Government Institutions to such food vendors as they had to bear a huge amount of losses resulting in increased debts. Social security in relation to these food vendors is also a matter of concern to be looked after in order to help the food vendors to effectively perform their vending activities. Restrictions by the Municipal Organisations should also be minimised to help the food vendors in their cause and normalcy should be brought in the market with caution in a full-fledged manner.


Effect Of Covid-19 On Food Vendors


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