Effect Of Corruptive Practices On Sustainable Grassroots Development In Nigeria
This study is on effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Iba local government of Lagos State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made directors, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
1.1 Background to the Study
Corruption is a global phenomenon. It is not the exclusive preserve of any nation, race or section of the world but transcends national boundaries and frontiers and symbolizes phenomenal universal unwholesomeness politically (Aluko, 2009 in Iyanda, 2012). Corruption is no doubt a global phenomenon that has threatened and still continues to threaten the developmental efforts in many nations; particularly the developing countries of the world (Kayode, Adagba and Anyio, 2013).
In Nigeria corruption is a common word used by both adults and children because it is found in every aspect of Nigeria. This monster called corruption has now been nick named in most Nigerian languages especially in the three major languages! Ndokwu (2004) says: the Igbos call it Igbuozu, the Yorubas call it Egunje while the Hausas call it Chuachua. People no longer frown or feel ashamed to engage in corrupt practices! Chuachua/Egunje or Igbuozu is now acceptable and it is possible to hear someone openly complaining that there is no Chuachua, Egunje or Igbuozu at his or her place of work and as such a person might quickly resign if he or she finds another work where there is opportunity for Chuachua. It is as bad as that! (Iyanda, 2012).
This menance has led to situations like slow movement of files in offices, police exortion of toll fees, port congestion, queues at passport offices and petrol stations, ghost workers syndrome, election irregularities, among others (Dike, 2005, Ihenacho, 2004 in Aluko (2009).
The fundamental challenges battling grassroots development in Nigeria has been one of high level corruption and its twain demons of poverty and economic hardship which have continue in this 21stcentury to elude sustainable development at the grassroots (Ojo, 2014).
The need to catalyze balanced development touching the grassroots, maximize citizen’s participation, and arouse government responsive necessitates the creation of the local government. The local government serves as a form of political and administrative structure facilitating decentralization, national integration, efficiency in governance, and a sense of belonging at the grassroots. The local government is a unit of administration all over the world (Agagu, 2004 in Adeyemi, 2012).
Although it is a universal institution, it however exists in different forms and in different political systems. Whatever the form of existence, the local government has been essentially regarded as the path to and guarantor of administrative efficiency, effective service delivery and participatory development (Arowolo, 2005). According to Odo (2014) local government is a critical tier of government because of its closeness to the people. Local government appeals to both the people and government as a feedback institution that relays the opinions and demands of the grassroots to a higher government (Adeyemi, 2012).
In Nigeria, eradicating corruption has been a major concern of successive government in the country because of its association with sustainable development at the grassroots (Kayode et al., 2013).
Odey (2002) opined that corruption in Nigeria is as the air which every living person breathes in and out, According to him, nobody makes any effort to breathe in the air, it comes naturally. Corruption in Nigeria has become so naturalized that’ many of us simply become corrupt without making any effort and often even without knowing it. It is in light of this that the research is posed to explore the effect of Corruptive Practices on Sustainable Grassroots Development in Nigeria with a special reference to Iba Local Council Development Area (LCDA).
1.2 Statement of Problem
Literature reveal that despite the establishment of various anti-corruption agencies like the Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC), Independent Corrupt Practices and Other Related Offences Commission (ICPC), and Code of Conduct Bureau and Tribunal (CCB) to wage war against corruption in Nigeria, its magnitude appears to be on the high side.
Corruption has impaired hard work, diligence and efficiency. It has caused incalculable damages to the social and political development of Nigeria and the grassroots in particular. It subverts honest selection processes and distorts prices. Furthermore, it weakens institutions, hampers investment and retards sustainable economic development. More importantly the resources that should be used for developmental purposes are being diverted from the society to private or personal use. This accumulation of the nation’s economic resources for personal benefits had variously contributed to the leakage of capital from Nigeria for illegal deposits abroad.
The prevalence of these activities in various aspects of our lives has a tremendous adverse effect on the quality of life of this country, our living standards and national psyche. Corruption brings a nation no good. The resources meant for water supply, roads, education, health and other basic and social services that are captured and stolen by a handful of Nigerians through corrupt acts stultify economic and social development hence creeping poverty all over the place (Ekwueru & Daminabo, 2008).
In other words, it has a crowding out effect on the growth and development of the country. It’s contributing effects on poverty and absence of infrastructural development at the grassroots is the more worrying. Nevertheless the extents of these negative effects are yet to be measured and quantified. It is against this background that this study seeks to examine the extent and the magnitude of the effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria and draw up policy recommendations for the eradication of Corruption in Nigeria.
1.3 Objectives of the Study
The major objective of this study is to examine the effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria.
Other specific objectives include;
- To examine the effect of bribery and corruption on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State.
- To find out if poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanisms promote corruption in Nigeria.
- To find out if administrative fraud in Iba LCDA constitute a barrier to effective resource mobilization and allocation
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The researcher intends to test the following hypotheses at 0.5 level of significance;
- Ho: Bribery and corruption do not have any effect on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State
- Hi: Bribery and corruption have an effect on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State
- Ho: There is no significant relationship between corruption and poor service delivery in Iba LCDA
- Hi: There is a significant relationship between corruption and poor service delivery in Iba LCDA
1.3 Significance of the Study
This study will be very significant to students, Iba local government area council and the general. The study will give insight on the effect of corruption in the Nation, Iba local government area council and the grassroot. This is an urgent need for government to tackle corruption before it tackles us. The study will serve as a reference to other researchers that will embark on this topic
1.6 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of the study covers effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria. The researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material:
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.7 Definition of Terms
In general, corruption is a form of dishonesty or criminal activity undertaken by a person or organization entrusted with a position of authority, often to acquire illicit profit.
Sustainable development is the organizing principle for meeting human development goals while at the same time sustaining the ability of natural systems to provide the natural resources and ecosystem services upon which the economy and society depend
A grassroots movement is one which uses the people in a given district, region, or community as the basis for a political or economic movement
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
It is important to ascertain that the objective of this study was to ascertain effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria. In the preceding chapter, the relevant data collected for this study were presented, critically analyzed and appropriate interpretation given. In this chapter, certain recommendations made which in the opinion of the researcher will be of benefits in addressing the challenges of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria
This study was on effect of corruptive practices on sustainable grassroots development in Nigeria. Three objectives were raised which included: To examine the effect of bribery and corruption on developmental projects at the grassroots level in Lagos State, to find out if poor salary scheme and weak law enforcement mechanisms promote corruption in Nigeria, to find out if administrative fraud in Iba LCDA constitute a barrier to effective resource mobilization and allocation. In line with these objectives, two research hypotheses were formulated and two null hypotheses were posited. The total population for the study is 200 staff of Iba local government of Lagos State. The researcher used questionnaires as the instrument for the data collection. Descriptive Survey research design was adopted for this study. A total of 133 respondents made directors, administrative staff, senior staff and junior staff were used for the study. The data collected were presented in tables and analyzed using simple percentages and frequencies
Corruption is on the increase in Nigeria’s local government and this was the manifestation of bad leadership at the state level and has transcended to the local government. This has affected and therefore reduced the status of the councils to mere servant and appendages of the state government. Mere visit of some of these local governments shows that little or nothing is happening in terms of developmental projects, public servants are not accountable to the people, democratic values are eroded, human, manpower and capacity building suffers, delay in payment of salaries and allowances, over burden of the councils with primary school education and insecurity become the order of the day. These socio-political underdevelopment were as result of corrupt practices at this level of government.
The focus and the best way to tackle corruption is to prevent it from happening. We also recommend that all the public loots should be thoroughly investigated and the offenders, once found guilty should be prosecuted and the loots taken back on the face value of what has been stolen
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