Effect Of Corruption In Nigeria Public Sector (A Case Study Of Nigeria Police, Owerri)

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration

Project and Seminar material for Public Administration


Abstract


The issue of corruption has been a major bone of contention in Nigeria Police. This work examines corrupt practices among the Police and the overall effects of corruption on how the outfit carries out its mandatory responsibilities in the society. Particular concern was shown on the effect of corruption on maintenance of law and order by the Police; the factors responsible for corrupt practices among the Nigerian Police personnel in Nigeria; and the extent of corruption within the Nigerian Police.

The focus of the study is Nigeria Police Owerri. As a qualitative survey (In-depth Interview approach), the study population was limited to 65 respondents selected through sampling method. The respondents in the study composed of both the civilians and the Police personnel. The study revealed that the concept of Police and what it stands for is not strange to the populace (particularly the population of this study) as they could recount the services rendered by the Police in the society off-hand.

Most of the respondents have had dealings with the Police based on various reasons. To some respondents, the nature of their profession has made it impossible for them to avoid coming in contact with Police (such as commercial motorists); others as a result of following some relations and neighbour who had one problem or the other to sort out in the Police Station. However, majority of the respondents does not see the Police (as an entity) and their personnel as worthy of being associated with based on their corrupt practices and crafty nature.

The entire civil populace arm of this study see the Police as very corrupt, while among the Police arm, existence of corruption within the Force was affirmed, but blanket generalization of the entire system was rejected. Among factors mentioned as responsible for the prevalence of corruption among the Police in Nigeria, inadequate finance of the Police which in part result to irregular payment of salary ranked highest.

Data from the survey equally revealed that the corruption is affecting the efficiency of the Police in many ways. A commonly mentioned effect of corruption on the performance of Police is the ever increasing crime rate. Inquiry into Police’s commitment to crime control in Nigeria shows diverse responses. Some respondents believe that the Police are committed to duties, while some did not.

Some respondents assert that the Police can do better with improvement in their condition of service. However, the study shows that people have developed lukewarm attitude towards reporting cases to the Police as at when due, as a result of lack of faith in the Police. On the basis of this suggestions were made on how to make the society habitable for the generality in view of the fact that police cannot operate without the support of the civil populace and vice-versa.


Table Of Contents


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background Of The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Research Question
  • 1.4 Objective Of Study
  • 1.5 Scope Of The Study
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Limitation Of Study
  • 1.8 Definition Of Terms

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 The Concept Of Corruption
  • 2.3 Factor That Influence The Prevalence Of Corruption In Nigeria
  • 2.4 Corruption And Development
  • 2.5 Origin Of The Nigerian Police Force
  • 2.6 Police Functions And Power In Nigeria
  • 2.7 Corruption And Abuse Of Discretion Among The Police
  • 2.8 Police And Corruption

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Design And Methodology

  • 3.1 Introduction
  • 3.2 Research Design
  • 3.3 Sources/Method Of Data Collection
  • 3.4 Population And Sample Size
  • 3.5 Sample Techniques
  • 3.6 Validity And Reliability Of Measuring Instrument
  • 3.7 Method Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Presentation And Analysis Of Data

  • 4.1 Introduction
  • 4.2 Presentation Of Data
  • 4.3 Analysis Of Data
  • 4.4 Test Of Hypothesis
  • 4.5 Interpretation Of Result(S)

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary Of Findings
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • Reference
  • Appendix
  • Questionnaire

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Corruption has become a household word in the Nigerian society. It pervades all strata of society, from the highest levels of the political and business elites to the ordinary person in the village. There are divergent opinions on what constitutes corruption just as is commonly the case with other concepts in the Social Sciences. This according to Akindele (1995) has long been ideologically, morally, culturally, politically and intellectually elusive to the point of losing sight of its detrimental and parasitic influence on people and the society at large. Divindi citing Aluko (2002) argued that corruption includes nepotism, favouritism, bribery, graft and other unfair means adopted by government employees and the public alike to extract some socially and legally prohibited favours.

However, there is the need for a legal and or formal institution to at least help to ensure meaningful socio-economic and national development.

Thus, the foundation for meaningful socio-economic and national development in any society is hinged on state of security, which is to be strictly monitored by the civil police.

In Nigeria like in many other nations, the police have been the major organization charged with the responsibility of maintenance and preservation of public peace. Effective Police force is therefore necessary in every society for maintenance of peace in that society, as effective Police force will make sure that all members of the community are safeguarded in their persons and properties so that their energies are not exhausted by the business of self-protection (Ehindero, 1986).

The above implies that, maintenance of peace does not only entail the protection of life and property but also embraces the prevention and detection of crime; the apprehension of the offenders and the due enforcement of all laws and regulations with which they are directly charged with. The assumption here is that, effective execution of the above-mentioned functions is tied to the smooth running of daily activities in every society, be it economic, social and political.

The Nigerian Police as an entity is confronted by a lot of problems which invariably affect their efficient and effective functioning. Despite all the shortcomings, Police is often considered a necessary evil as people were prepared to put up with occasional excesses in hope of achieving a degree of order and security. At the same time, one cannot ignore the hues and cries that permeate the entire country over the perceived corruption of Nigerian Police.

There has been widespread concern over the state of insecurity and seemingly inability of the Police to deal with the problems. In response to this, there were several calls for reform of the Police in order to achieve the objective for its establishment. The political crises of the 1960s and 1980s in Nigeria have raised serious questions about the quality and fairness of Police performance. Other factors such as increasing crime rates, Police corruption, Police militancy/brutality and cost (both human and material) of policing the community have served to keep issues of police reform alive.

In virtually every parts of the country, people tend to look elsewhere for alternative sources of protection for their lives and properties. Many prefer to keep any information that is vital for crime prevention to themselves. Many have resorted to jungle justices. It is in the light of the above that the research therefore focuses on the effect of corruption in public sector with an in-depth emphasis on Nigerian Police.


1.2 Statement Of Research Problems

Corruption has become a socio-economic malaise, which has infiltrated the whole Nigerian society and has constituted serious impediment to development. Apart from economic and material effect, corruption also has political implications and constitutes direct threat to the legitimacy of government and leaders. It does not only constitute a drain on limited government/societal resources which could have been utilized for other more profitable ventures in the economy, it also gives a country a bad reputation and may mar her diplomatic image and scare investors.

With particular reference to the Nigerian Police Force, the public confidence and trust which was already low and has become virtually destroyed, scholars have asserted that the perceived ineffectiveness is occasioned basically by the incidence of corruption within the Police force (Soyombo, 2003). The incidence of corruption according to them has gradually infiltrated and overwhelmed the entire Police system to the extent that their constitutional right to prevent and maintain law and order has gradually become weak and their effectiveness questioned.

In view of this, what is the future of the Nigeria state if the Police are corrupt? How can we build the state Police that is devoid of corruption? How can the Nigerian Police be reorganized in order to be free of corruption?


1.3 Research Questions

  1. What is the extent of corruption within the Nigerian Police?
  2. What are the factors responsible for corrupt practices among the Nigerian Police personnel?
  3. What effects is corruption having on their primary duty of maintenance of law and order?
  4. What are veritable steps to ensure total reorganization and proper reorientation of Police Force in Nigeria?

1.4 Objectives Of Study

The general objective of this work is to understand the effect of corruption on Police’s primary responsibility of maintenance of law and order.
Specific Objectives

  1. To examine the factor(s) that is/are responsible for the prevailing corruption within the Police?
  2. To investigate the level of corruption within the Nigerian Police.
  3. To examine the effect of corrupt practices on how the Police could carry out its primary task of maintenance of law and order.

1.5 Scope Of The Work

The research work is limited to Nigerian Police Owerri and its scope is on the understanding of effect of corruption on Nigerian’s Public Sector.


1.6 Significance Of The Study

The essence of undertaking this research is to assess the effect of corruption in Nigerian Police, since escalation of crime in Nigeria has been attributed to corruption-induced ineffectiveness of the Police, the fear of insecurity will create uneasiness in the country.

This has economic implications on the society as it leads to low productivity on the part of the individual. The understanding of environmental factors that influence prevalence of corruption among the Police officials will enhance the governmental policies aimed at fighting

corruption in Nigeria. Furthermore, it will contribute to the existing knowledge by serving as baseline data for those who intend to make further studies on corrupt practices among the Police and its impacts on their traditional roles in the society.


1.7 Limitation Of The Study

It is necessary to highlight some of the problems that i encountered in the course of carrying out this research work which includes;

Inadequate fund:

This made the project a problematic one, hence as a student without a good +financial base struggled in collection of data for the project, and high cost of transportation in running to and fro, from one library to another. It was so difficult combining my assignment work with this project.

Insufficient Material:

This is another problem I encountered in the course of this work, going from libraries, internet, newspapers, magazines, journals, tertiary institution, textbooks and lectures, consultations before I could come up with the materials on the topic and all these involved money.

Non-chalant Attitude and Unwillingness:

it is another problem on this research work, the respondents were unable to give out some vital information needed either for the fear of being implicated or not to disclose the secret of the establishment.


1.8 Definition Of Terms

Accountability:

This is proposals for greater police accountability.

Corruption:

Mean dishonest or illegal behavior especially of people in authority.

Corruption:

Mean dishonest or illegal behavior especially of people in authority.

Police force:

A body of trained officers entrusted by a government with maintenance of public peace and order, enforcement of laws and prevention and detection of crime.

Public Sector:

This refers to all members of all public institutions, financed and maintained by the tax payers, and the involvements of whose members regularly authorized by the legislature acting in concert with the execution.

Public:

Connected with ordinary people in society general.

Organization:

A group of people who form a business club, etc together in order to achieve a particular aim.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

Having identified the impacts of corrupt practices on the organizational productivity in Imo state public service using various techniques and methods, the researcher find out various types of corruption (political corruption, bureaucratic corruption and electoral corruption), which go on within the ministries and various commissions.
With the aid of questionnaires and survey investigation information were gathered and analysis made to determine the remained to corruption within our public service.

This data as an information was analyzed and tested with hypothesis test in order of acceptance or rejection of the values from the respondents. There are questions and response in regard to the impact of corruption on developed nation economy and underdeveloped nation economy.


5.2 Summary Of Finding

From the analysis and examination of various response made by the members of the staff among the members of public service. The researcher made useful findings which are stated below:

  1. That corruption has grown so wide and sophisticated that it threatens to undermine the fabric of society.
  2. That corruption has no good intention, all its products is evil and destruction.
  3. That corruption leads to outright underdevelopment and leads to lack of trust among the public sector.
  4. Corruption leads to inefficiency and ineffectiveness of the public service.
  5. Corruption is such a sensitive issue that has destroyed the successful running of the people or (nation).

5.3 Conclusion

It is observed that corruption will thrive in the face of poverty, adversity and hardship. It is therefore, incumbent on Nigeria public service and government as a whole to create an enabling environment for improvement in social welfare system through the payment of appropriate wages and general improvement in the condition of people. Obasanjo – i.e. government in Nigeria deserved kudos for introducing a minimum living wages or assumption of office and several poverty education and eradication programme it had instituted. It is now left for the present administration to take advantage of these programmes in eradicating corruption and improve resources management and service delivery.

There should be also a more conscious effort for government to encourage genuine leadership. Leadership by example should be watch word by government elites. Nigerians are very hard working people when properly motivated through a dedicated leadership, will make them put their best to salvage the system, Africans need a new type of man, a dedicated, modest, honest and devoted man, man submerges self in service to his nation and mankind.

Furthermore, nepotism, tribalism, greed and corruption in Nigeria political system should be reduced if it cannot be avoided.

Also, Nigerians should be given equal opportunities to excel in any profession they find themselves.


5.4 Recommendation

In view of the investigation carried out in this research, it has been confirmed among the people how corrupt practice has affected productivity in Imo state civil service commission as a case study based on the findings on this research.

I hereby recommend the following:

  1. Poverty has been a stumbling issue in the Nigerian policy, on this effect the government should work hard to reduce poverty. Hence, poverty makes people to sell their conscience by doing what is not right in order to eat or improve their standard of living.
  2. Greed has contributed to the downfall of production in the public service in Imo state due to love for material things (money) people in our current public servants try to maneuver and trade on their right and conscience in order to maximize profit. A corrupt society or nation cannot benefit from the fruits of democracy. There is no aspect of life that is not touched by corrupt practice and it is not only being made acceptable to the citizenry but glorified and honoured everyone is stealing and cheating. The small man steals but the authorities “take” the monster as corruption and we cannot build a happy society.

Finally, the issue of corruption cannot be over flogged unit the desired result is achieved even after that, the issues remains hotly in focus in order to protect and safeguard the victory won against relapse.


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