The Effect Of Cocoa Farming On The Economy Of Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Economics

The Effect Of Cocoa Farming On The Economy Of Nigeria


Abstract


In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis on the effect of cocoa farming on the economy of Nigeria. The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the economic benefit of cocoa production in Nigeria.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active cocoa farmers in the 5 selected Local government areas in Lagos State.

The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between cocoa farming and economic development of Nigeria, also The result from this investigation proved that there is a significant mean difference in relationship between agriculture and reduction of unemployment in Nigeria.


Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of Study

Cocoa farming has really contributed to most of the agricultural sectors in Nigeria. As we all know; agriculture has done a lot in the time of old even when crude oil was not the major source of revenue in Nigeria. Agriculture has provided food for almost the entire population of Nigeria; is it employment? Farmers that operates on a larger scale tends to employ more labour.

Cocoa farming is a very vital part of agriculture as it provide food for the entire population of Nigeria, raw material for industry, it also serve as a source for foreign exchange in Nigeria.

Cocoa has really contributed to the economic development of Nigeria.

During the 50s when agriculture was the major source of income and economic development, the value of the Nigeria currency was very much appreciated and the standard of living was very much manageable. In Nigeria of today, virtually everybody is now running away from agriculture. Everybody is looking at the oil sector.

Nigeria is blessed with variety of agricultural products; cocoa is one of them. It does not seem to perish easily.

Cocoa can be largely supplied to every part of the country and its demand is on the high side.

Cocoa farmers are considered the wealthiest because the value of the product and the demand of such products.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The economy of Nigeria is on the low side because of the drop in the price of oil and most of the Nigeria citizen has really abandoned agriculture. When crude oil was not much in supply in the early 50s agriculture was the major source of revenue for both the government and the citizens of Nigeria. Most of the people said that there is capital to set up a big farm. Some said no machinery and the government policy is not allowing them practice on a larger scale.


1.3 Research Question

  1. Does cocoa farming has any effect on the economic development of Nigeria?
  2. Is there any way the government can help develop the practice of agriculture in Nigeria?
  3. Does cocoa export have any effect on the gross domestic product of Nigeria?
  4. Does the practice of agriculture help reduce unemployment in Nigeria?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  1. H0: There is no significant effect of cocoa farming on the economic development of Nigeria.
    H1: There is significant effect of cocoa farming on the economic development of Nigeria
  2. H0: There is no mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that agriculture help to reduce unemployment in Nigeria.
    H1: There is mean difference in gender responses of the respondents that agriculture help to reduce unemployment in Nigeria.
  3. H0: Cocoa export has no significant effect on the gross domestic product of Nigeria.
    H1: Cocoa export has significant effect on the gross domestic product of Nigeria.

1.5 Aim and Objective of Study

  1. To determine the effect of cocoa farming on the economic development of Nigeria
  2. To investigate the effect of agriculture on the level of unemployment in Nigeria
  3. To determine the effect of cocoa export on the gross domestic product of Nigeria.
  4. To determine the impact of government policy on the development of agricultural practice in Nigeria.

1.6 Significance of Study

By the end of this research work, we shall be able to determine the impact of government policy on the development of agricultural practice in Nigeria. We shall also be able to determine the effect of cocoa on the gross domestic product of Nigeria and its effect on the economic development of Nigeria.


1.7 Scope of Study

The primary data for the purpose of this study was obtained by the use of questionnaires and CBN statistical bulletin and the rest of the secondary data was obtained from wiki books, journals and other related articles.


1.8 Definition of Terms

Economy:

Is an area of the production, distribution or trade, and consumption of goods and services by different agents in a given geographical location


Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

In this study, our focus was to carryout a critical analysis on the effect of cocoa farming on the economy of Nigeria.

The study specifically was aimed at ascertaining the economic benefit of cocoa production in Nigeria. This study reviewed and anchored its framework on conversational theory.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 100 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent are active cocoa farmers in the 5 selected Local government areas in Lagos State.

The findings revealed that there is a significant relationship between cocoa farming and economic development of Nigeria, also The result from this investigation proved that there is a significant mean difference in relationship between agriculture and reduction of unemployment in Nigeria.

Lastly, The result from this investigation established that there is a significant relationship between Cocoa export and gross domestic product of Nigeria


5.2 Recommendation

The declining yields of cocoa in Nigeria, which has led to frustration and mass exodus of producers from the industry to other more promising area of the economy, could be reversed if efforts are geared towards implementing the following recommendations:

  1. Intensification of replanting programs; removal of the old and diseased trees and replanting on suitable soil, with high yielding diseased resistant materials.
  2. Planting in new areas to produce fresh trees that will bear cocoa pods.
  3. Provision of storage facilities.
  4. Granting subsidy to farmers on cost of labour and other inputs such as fertilizers, pesticides, fungicides, herbicides and farm equipment.
  5. The communication system in the Research – Extension – Farmer set-up should be overhauled completely to enhance free flow of Research information to the farmers on the latest technological advances.
  6. Adequate market information are made available to farmers and the provision of infrastructures in the rural areas to attract young person’s to go back to cocoa farming.

It is important that government improve the infrastructural facilities particularly access roads to the cocoa producing areas which are generally in a poor condition especially during the rainy season. Since transportation plays a vital role in the evacuation, distribution, and marketing of farm produce until they get to the final consumers, good road networks are necessary needed to link production and collection centres.

Since educational level was found to have significant effect on the level of production, the farmers should be encouraged to improve their level of education, especially with regards to being able to read and write to some extent by attending adult literacy programmes which would assist in increasing their efficiency.

There is need to improve the market share of cocoa farmers by linking them directly with larger markets so as to reduce exploitation by the middlemen. With this, the cocoa farmers would be enabled to earn higher income as well as sustain themselves and their families. It would also aid food security and sustainable development in the cocoa producing areas.

The downstream activities of the cocoa sector are known to have huge potential for employment generation and wealth creation. Some of the areas of strategic entry are commercial storage, storage technology development and marketing, e-information development and dissemination, outsourcing of industrial components like wrapping/packaging, blending, oil extraction and, of course, market infrastructure development. Pockets of best practices by different institutions and stakeholders, especially the critical ones like CRIN, STCP, NCDC indicate the recent identification and development of about 20 cocoa products by CRIN ready for immediate uptake and commercialization. These include cocoa bread, cocoa juice, coca cola, chocolate, CRIN vita, liquid detergent, body cream, hair cream, soichoco, chocogarri, black soap and choco husk feeds.

Government and Non-Governmental Organisations should assist the farmers with soft loans so as to enable the farmers be able to expand the hecterage of their farms. Also, it is recommended that government policy on agriculture especially cocoa production and export should be reinvigorated for increased revenue generation.


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