Effect Of Climate Change (Flood) On Housing For The Urban Poor In Ilajesomolu Local Government

Project and Seminar Material for Environmental Science

Effect Of Climate Change (Flood) On Housing For The Urban Poor In Ilajesomolu Local Government


Abstract


Flood could be seen as one of the most common natural disasters in the world. The urban poor are the most vulnerable socially, economically and physically to the impacts of extreme events and, to the impact of adverse environmental tendencies resulting from climate change (flood) such as flood, drought, increasing sea-level etc. The aim of this study is to examine the coping mechanism of the residents of Ilaje community, Somolu local government area of Lagos state to flood with the view to evolving a framework for mitigation and adaptation. A total of 134 respondents were selected from the population figure out of which the sample size was determined. Data collected was analyzed using frequency table, percentage and mean score analysis while the nonparametric statistical test (Chi-square) was used to test the formulated hypothesis using SPSS (statistical package for social sciences). The primary source of data collected was the use of a structured questionnaire which was designed to elicit information on the effect of climate change on housing for the urban poor. The secondary sources of data were mainly from primary and secondary sources. The data for this study was mainly collected using a questionnaire. The frequency table and percentage analysis were used to analyze the data collected. The mean score was calculated using Chi-square test. The results of the study showed that flood is a significant hazard to the health of the population. This study intends to contribute to the body of knowledge in environmental planning, by developing and integrating scientific, operational, and educational aspects of flood management, including the social response and communication dimensions of flooding and related disaster preparedness.


Chapter One


Introduction

Background of the Study

In the past four decades, economic losses due to natural hazards such as, floods disasters have increased in many folds and have also resulted in major loss of human lives and livelihoods, the destruction of economic and social infrastructure, as well as environmental damages (Munich, 2002). Flood could be seen as one of the most common natural disasters in the world. Floods, one of natural hazards result from the potential for extreme geographical events, to create an unexpected threat to human life and property (Smith, 1996). When severe floods occur in areas occupied by humans, they can create natural disasters which involve the loss of human life and property plus serious disruption to the ongoing activities of large urban and rural communities (Smith and Ward, 1998).

However, besides the negative flood impact such as damage to houses and other buildings, loss of life, loss of jobs or income, disruption of the network of social contact, and interruption to normal access to education, health and food services, there can be a variety of positive flood impacts, for instance, increased fertility of agricultural land (Parker et al. 1987). For poorer groups, some of the impacts are very direct, if flood becomes more frequent and hazardous. The urban poor are the most vulnerable socially, economically and physically to the impacts of extreme events and, to the impact of adverse environmental tendencies resulting from climate change such as flood, drought, increasing sea-level etc. Vulnerability, is a critical dimension of poverty, though synonymous with poverty, but refers to defenselessness and insecurity (Idowu, 2011).

With the increasing number of urban dwellers worldwide, the number of people at risk or vulnerable to flood hazards is likely to increase. Any increase in disasters, whether large or small, will threaten development gains and hinder the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals (UN-ISDR, 2008). Disasters such as flooding, poses serious challenge to the economy of a nation. It must be noted that the economic environment of a nation consists of its financial systems, social welfare, power sector, transportation, investments, commerce, manufacturing, construction and banking among others.

Disasters when they occur usually result in pains and huge losses to the economy and in most cases; it is always difficult to quantify the actual cost of damages and recovery. A single case of disaster such as the one that occurred in Lagos, Nigeria on July 10, 2011 actually destroyed several years of developmental efforts. In flood disaster, there are loss of lives, destruction of public utilities and disruption in the smooth functioning of the system that renders fear and uncertainties among the populace. In addition, there was loss of livelihoods, damage to the environment, financial loss, and diversion of resources, epidemics, migration, food shortages and displacement of the people. The impact can be very high in the urban areas, because the areas affected are densely populated and contain vital infrastructure such as in Ilaje community in Lagos state. A more disturbing issue is the lack of attention to the promotion of sustainable environmental management especially in disaster prone areas resulting in devastations which could have been averted.

Flood is said to be the most significant effect of climate change on the poor (Idowu, 2011). It is caused from increased precipitation: therefore, destroying infrastructure like roads, culverts, drainage systems, houses and water supply which can have knock-on effects on many parts of the study area. Damage to healthcare infrastructure will affect the health of the population and damage to roads can disrupt livelihoods and income. Four different types of flooding are evident in literature: localized flooding due to inadequate drainage system; flooding from small streams whose banks urban areas are built; and coastal flooding from the sea or through a combination of high tides and high river flows from inland. climate change

Localized flooding occurs many times a year in many informal settlements such as those in the study area, because there are few drains (or those that exist are blocked), most of the ground is highly compacted and pathways between dwellings become streams after heavy rain.
The urban poor in Nigeria particularly refers to a sub-population characterized by various forms of social deprivation, such feature, include low education, low and unstable income, struggle for survival and a spatial housing location with all the characteristics of slums, shanty towns or squatter settlements as epitomized by the Ilaje community. Based on the foregoing, this study is examining the coping mechanism of the residents of Ilaje community, Somolu local government area of Lagos state to flood with the view to evolving a framework for mitigation and adaptation. climate change

This study, therefore, intends to contribute to the body of knowledge in environmental planning, by examining the coping mechanism in Ilaje community being a flood prone area in Lagos metropolis, Nigeria.

Over forty years ago, financial loss and damage surfer due to natural hazards such as, floods disasters have increased in many times which also resulted majorly on loss of human lives and livelihoods, causing so much damages to economic and social infrastructure, and as well causes environmental damages (Munich, 2002). The most common natural disasters in the world today is flood. One of natural hazards that may result from the potential for extreme geographical events which create sudden threat to human life and property is Floods (Smith, 1996). With several occurrence of flood in areas occupied by humans, it can lead to natural disasters involving loss of human life and property coupled with serious disturbance to the continuous activities of wide urban and rural communities (Smith and Ward, 1998). Moreover, despite the negative impact of flood such as damage to properties, loss of life, loss of jobs or income, discontinuous of the network of social contact as expected, and effect on constant access to education, adequate health and food services, and there can still be series of positive flood impacts, for example, increased fertility of agricultural land (Parker et al., 1987). Vulnerability, is a critical measure of extent of poverty, though closely associated with poverty, but refers to quality of being weak and unable to protect oneself from attack and lack of security (Idowu, 2011). With every day increase in number of people living in urban area worldwide, the number of people that will be vulnerable or be at risk to flood hazards is likely to increase. With an increase in disasters be it small or large will endanger developmental gains and make the implementation of the Millennium Development Goals difficult (UN-ISDR, 2008).

Flood is said to be the most sufficiently great effect of climate change on the poor people (Idowu, 2011). It occurred as a result of increased in precipitation thereby damaging infrastructures such as roads, drainage systems, culverts, houses and water supply that may resulted in cumulative effects on many parts of the study area. Charveriat (2000) stated it that in Asia, natural disasters affected about 3.76 billion people between the year 1970 and 1999 and as well as the countries in the regions of Caribbean and Latin America were affected by earthquakes, droughts and floods, windstorms, however, floods had the highest increasing cost. According to the World Bank (2001), the potential impacts of climate change on human health would increase vulnerability and climate change and will have both direct and indirect adverse effects on human health. With climate change, weather is less predictable, heavy storm rainfalls is more likely to occur as rains more uncertain. Unpredictable rainfall is shown both by observations, like the large inconstant in the levels of Lake Victoria in Africa since 1980, and by the experiences of prolong urban overcrowded residents, who give account greatly of constant storms producing floods since 1990 (Action Aid International, 2006).


Research Questions

In an attempt to address these issues, this study, therefore, addresses the following key questions:

  1. What are the socio-economic characteristics of the residents in the study area?
  2. What are the adaptive mechanism of the residents to flooding and;
  3. What is the environmental condition in Ilaje community?

Limitations of the Study

A limitation of this study is the use of survey research. There may be surveys returned that were not filled out truthfully or with responses that do not reflect true intentions. The results will not be generalizable beyond the population or sample used.

Complete Material Available


Get Complete Project Material

5,000 5000

The Complete Material Will Be Sent to You in Just 2 Steps

Quick & Simple…


Step One Purchase

Make Payment (Through Transfer) of ₦5,000 to the Account Below

Zenith BankAcc No: 1225513212
Samphina Academy
Current Account

Or CLICK HERE To Pay With Debit Card


FOR STUDENTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA
CLICK HERE To Purchase Material ($15)

Step Two Purchase

Send the Following Details on WhatsApp ( 08143831497) After Payment

  1. Payment Details

  2. TOPIC: Effect Of Climate Change (Flood) On Housing For The Urban Poor In Ilajesomolu Local Government

The Complete Material Will Be Sent To You On WhatsApp After Receiving Your Details
T & C Apply


  Contact Our Help Desk


Need a Different Topic? Perform a Quick Search



List of Related Works

Click on Any Topic to Preview the Content


Conclusion


Urban flood management is not a singular event or process. It is imbedded within integrated flood management, which is an integral part of integrated water resources management on a basin-wide basis. All of these processes take place within the context of climate change, and they must be responsive to the likely – but as yet uncertain – effects of climate change. At the same time, population growth and related social dynamics, livelihood requirements, economic development, land use development, environmental degradation and so on interact to influence the hydrological circumstances of a river basin and floodplain. Each of these forces is dynamic and continues to evolve, as do the direct and indirect pressures they exert on flood management practices. One cannot create a comprehensive picture of the future by examining each of these factors independently. They interact in various expected and unexpected ways and must be addressed holistically. 149 The uncertainty inherent in climate change projections may mean that risk-centered approaches and risk-based analysis (including cost-benefit analysis) are no longer as useful or robust as they have been. The past may no longer be a reliable guide to the future, especially when it comes to urban flood management planning and implementation. The combination of climate change, increasing urbanization, demands for housing and industrial land (often in the floodplain), economic development and rising expectations cannot be discounted in urban flood management. Rather than focusing on any one of these issues, it will be necessary to combine them – and their many stakeholders – into a comprehensive planning process for increasing adaptation and enhancing community resilience. 150 One example of this kind of integrated effort is the International Flood Initiative, a joint WMO, UNESCO-IHP, UNISDR, IAHS and IAHR initiative that sets out to establish a more inclusive approach within the recommendations arising from the World Conference on Disaster Reduction in Kobe in 2005. The objective is to contribute to flood damage mitigation by developing and integrating scientific, operational, and educational aspects of flood management, including the social response and communication dimensions of flooding and related disaster preparedness. Key elements include (Ashley et al., 2007):

  • Living with floods – proactive multi-hazard risk based approaches to develop culturally sensitive and sustainable ways of living with and managing floods;
  • Equity – the equitable distribution of the burdens and benefits of flood risk management policy and management processes across generations;
  • Empowered participation – of all stakeholders through appropriate institutional frameworks and governance mechanisms, with cleverly designed communication technologies as part of social development;
  • Interdisciplinarity – integrate and exploit better across disciplines;
  • Trans-sectorality – to include all levels of stakeholder as well as national and international bodies;
  • International and regional cooperation – clearly important across physical boundaries but also across socio-political boundaries as well.
samphina.academy

Samphina Academy

Samphina Academy is an Online Educational Resource Center that is aimed at providing students with quality information and materials to aid them in succeeding in their academic pursuit.