The Effect Of Classroom Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary School

Project and Seminar Material for Business Education Students

The Effect Of Classroom Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary School


Abstract


Large class size is one of the problems in the educational sector that developing nations have been grappling with. Nigeria as a developing nation is no exception. The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools. The study employed a quasi- experimental survey design; the population consisted of teachers in Enugu Educational zone, Enugu State. The total populations of 100teachers were used for the sample. The research instruments used in data collection were questionnaire. The findings of this study revealed that large class size has negative implications on effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools. The relationship between large class and effective teaching and learning is very low. The study recommended among others that management should employ more lecturers for the teaching of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools if they want to admit large number of students because of income, also the institution should make extra effort to provide more resources and facilities to promote effective teaching and learning of Business Education.


Table of Content


Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of Problem
  • 1.3 Research Objectives
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Organization of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Concept of Class Size
  • 2.3 The Effect of Class-Size on the Teaching of Business Education
  • 2.4 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.5 Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Design of the Study
  • 3.2 Area of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
  • 3.4 Instrument for Data Collection
  • 3.5 Validation and Reliability of the Instrument
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


1.0 Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The increase in population in a school affects the class sizes, the performances of students become an issue. Class size refers to the number of students in a given course or classroom, specifically either the number of students being taught by individual teachers in a course or classroom or the average number of students being taught by teachers in a school or educational system. The term may also be the number of students participating in learning experience. Class size is almost an administrative decision over which teachers have little or no control. Class size refers to an educational tool that can be used to describe the average number of students per class in a school (Adeyemi, 2008). There are large and small sizes in school. The smaller the class, the greater the likelihood is that a teacher will spend more time with individual pupils.

Large classes present more challenges for classroom management, pupil control, and marking, planning, and assessment. Teachers are put under more strain when faced with large classes. In smaller classes, it can be easier for teachers to spot problems and give feedback, identify specific needs and gear teaching to meet them, and set individual targets for pupils. Teachers also experience better relationships with, and have more knowledge of individual pupils. Ajayi and Adeosun (2004) opined that in order to control rising capital cost of education, the average class-size could be increased. These points were also supported by Toth and Montagna (2002) who reported that the increase in enrollment in many institutions which has become major concerns of students could definitely lead to an increase in class size. Commeyras (2000) however, disagreed with these arguments and reported that effective teaching seems impracticable for teacher educators having large class sizes of 50, 75, 100 or more.

In Nigeria, Okoro (1985) reported that the class-size in University of Nigeria, Nsukka should range between 35 or 40 students. He argued that few students per class are uneconomical, as they do not make full use of space, teachers and teaching materials. Nwadiani (2000) argued that the higher the class-size, the lower the cost of education. He contended however, that most classrooms are over-crowded spreading resources thinly and thereby affecting the quality of education. One of the pillars of a successful implementation of effective business education progamme is the availability and adequacy of teaching and learning resources. Unfortunately, as observed by the researchers, one of the major challenges facing academic institution in Nigeria is inadequate infrastructural facilities which are obvious in inadequate laboratory equipment, classrooms and lecture halls. It is therefore the intention of this study to examine the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The problem of poor performance of junior secondary school students in teaching and learning is concerned with poor infrastructures (conducive sizeable classroom) which constitutes the problem of large classes. Salle (2000:1) emphasizes that “it does not take a rocket scientist or poet laureate to know that teaching a large class is a very different set of challenges that we typically face in our classes”. The government of Nigeria be it federal or state as stakeholders in education contribute to the problems of schools and make the schools what they are today. The poor funding of the education sector has reduced the teaching/learning programme into a mere struggle for survival between the teachers and their students. The insufficient dilapidated school buildings are used to compress large number of students for learning activities. The meager salary paid to teachers and incessant strike actions have always disrupted adequate concentration of teaching/learning programme.

The frequent visit of the officials from the Ministry of Education into various schools in the nation to verify certificate and ghost workers does not include investigation of the teaching/learning progress, which are most relevant. The loss of relevant issues is spelt in the unrealized stated objectives of the learning outcome.

Edoabasi (2007:19) emphasizes, “effective teaching and learningcannot be developed in crowded class rooms”. His stated opinion supports that effective teaching/learning is only possible in a conducive environment where students/teachers are at ease.

The poor performance of students in business education is a big concern to not only the teachers but the principals of schools and even the parents of these students, because poor performance in business education eventually leads to poor performance and at the end hinders student’s ambition for higher studies and placements in good jobs in the society. The problem of this study put in question form is “what is the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools?”


1.3 Research Objectives

The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools.

Specifically, the objectives include:

  1. To examine the effect of large classroom size in the teaching of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools
  2. To examine the effect of large classroom size in the learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools
  3. To identify the strategies to improve effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools

1.4 Research Questions

This project is designed to tackle the following reach questions;

  1. What is the effect of large classroom size in the teaching of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools?
  2. What is the effect of large classroom size in the learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools?
  3. What are the strategies to improve effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools?

1.5 Research Hypothesis

The following null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study the hypothesis is to be tested at 0.5 alpha levels.

  • HO1: There is no significant relationship between large classroom size and effective teaching of business education in Junior Secondary Schools
  • HO2: There is no significant relationship between large classroom size and learning business education effectively in Junior Secondary Schools

1.6 Significance of the Study

The importance of learning and teaching is of paramount significance, the finding from this study is of great benefit to the following people: the teachers, the students, the curriculum planners and Education officials.

This study provided information to the teachers in secondary schools since teachers recognize, through this study that teaching small class size in business education is more effective; the teacher can then adopt the shift method and group her large class into small sizes, though this may increase her contact time.

Students can benefit more in business education through small class sizes when the teacher adopts the shift method in teaching class, because this shift method will improve personal contact between the teacher and her students.
The curriculum planners can suggest average class size to government on the teaching of some aspects of business education for effective teaching and clear understanding on how to write summary.

The study finding provided information to the Ministry of Education Officials about the effect of large size in teaching / understanding of business education in schools. The government can make use of this information to make policy adjustments on class size in schools for effective teaching/leaning.


1.7 Definition of Terms

Classroom:

Refers to the physical space or room where learning and teaching takes place in modern and conventional educational institutions.

Teaching:

Refers to the impartation of knowledge relating to business education to the students.

Learning:

Refers to the process of acquiring new knowledge and applying them to solve practical problems related to business education.

Business Education:

Refers to the academic subject which covers various aspects of business activities, concepts and models usually introduced at the secondary level.


1.8 Organization of the Study

This study is divided into five chapters. The first chapter is the introduction which contains the background, research problems and objectives. The second chapter is the literature review and the third chapter is the research methodology. In the fourth chapter, the researcher analyses the data and discusses the results. The fifth chapter is the last chapter which presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations.


Chapter Five


5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Summary

The study sought to examine the effect of classroom size in effective teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools. The design of this study was quasi- experimental and the sample for this study was 100 teachers drawn from the ten (10) schools randomly selected. The result showed the responses of respondents on the implication of large class size on the teaching of Business Education. The table revealed that most of the respondents agreed that large class size leads to poor classroom management, ineffective students’ control, poor planning and assessment and increase strain on teachers. Also, the respondents agreed that, student’s ability will not be known by teachers in a large class. It encourages disruptive behaviour, frustrate the teachers’ effort and affect teachers’ health. However, the respondents indicated that large class size does not reduce teachers’ productivity and does not hinder teachers from giving out their best. These responses indicates that there are negative implications of large class size on effective teaching of Business Education in tertiary institutions.

Furthermore, the result showed the responses of the respondents on the implication of large class size on the learning of Business Education. It was revealed in the table that most of the respondents agreed that: large class size affects student assimilation in Business Education; large class is an avenue for students to interact instead of learning; Information from the teacher will not be properly disseminated. Also there is a high case of examination failure in large class. The study revealed that interference from unserious students affects learning in a large class.

The respondents further indicated that there is no motivation to attend classes in a large class. There is opportunity for them to exhibit unruly behaviour due to inability of teacher to control students effectively. The study also revealed that facilities to enhance learning are not available in a large class. Large class encourages regular lateness for lectures and students are less attentive in large class sizes. These responses indicated that there are negative implications of large class size on effective learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools.


5.2 Conclusion

In conclusion, Class size is thought to influence students teaching and learning. The study have revealed that that large class-size affect the academic achievement of students in tertiary institutions in Enugustate, Nigeria. Large class size makes teaching and learning of Business Education difficult and it does not promote seriousness among students in Junior Secondary Schools. The programme gives individuals the skills to live, learn and work as a productive citizen in a global society. It contributes greatly to the economic development of any nation and a tool for development. Quality teaching must be given during the training, so as to give the students the best that will make them fit in into the world of work.


5.3 Recommendations

It was recommended that:

  1. The management should employ more teachers for the teaching of Business Education in Junior Secondary Schools. There is the need to make the number of students to be taught in the classes to be moderate so that the lecturer can be able to manage the class effectively and give individual attention to students where necessary.
  2. The population of students admitted into the schools should be on the basis of available space and facilities. There should be a reasonable match between students’ population and the available resources. More classrooms should be provided to enable the students to seat comfortably in a conducive environment.
  3. Management of the institutions should carefully allocate resources for Business Education.
  4. Government should take in to consideration of the special needs of the programme by funding or increasing the allocation giving to the institution. It is better not to attempt a vocational programme than to operate it below the economic level that would lead to success. Vocational education is not cheap education, but it is economically sound to provide it.

The Effect Of Classroom Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary School


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The Effect Of Classroom Size In Effective Teaching And Learning Of Business Education In Junior Secondary School


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