The Effect Of Child-Labour On Emotional, Health And Academic Achievement Of Primary School Pupils In Rural Areas In Nigeria
1.1 Background Of The Study
The disparities in academic success among students under the same teaching conditions have given the researcher cause for concern over time. The goal was to determine what causes high or poor academic achievement, and the researcher’s interactions with students with high academic performance revealed that they come from well-off families, live in stable environments, and are exposed to conducive environments. Interaction with students with poor academic success reveals that the majority of them come from poor or dysfunctional families with little or no means of subsistence; as a result, they must fend for themselves.This puts them in a neurological and mental state in flux. Child labor and violence are frowned upon, according to Anukam (1986), Waboso (2000), Esu (2002), Okpechi (2005), and the International Society for the Prevention of Child Labor, Abuse, and Neglect (ISPCAN), which led to the founding of the African Network for the Prevention and Defense Of Child Abuse and Neglect (ANPPCAN). Many of these organizations oppose child labor and violence.When an infant is denied fundamental human rights, he or she is said to have been raped. In essence, he is exposed to a great deal of mistreatment and is compelled to live in an inhospitable world. Child abuse can take many forms, including child labor, malnutrition, sexual assault, psychological and physical abuse, children used in rituals, battering, child soldering, child prostitution, Human slavery, child neglect, and early marriage, to name a few. Abudu, (1984); Dyorough, (1986); Waboso, (2000); Okpechi, (2000); Abudu, (1984); Dyorough, (1986); Waboso, (2000); Waboso (2005).
It is normal in society to see school-aged children working as babysitters, houseboy/maid servants, and housekeeping, among other things, and the researcher wondered why these children were not in school. Can they perform well in classes, whether they attend at all? The researcher had found several students in class sleeping while studying on many occasions as an instructor. When asked why they sleep at that time, the most common response is that they work before going to school and are thus weak, i.e. (child labour). The researcher also noticed that most students don’t do well in school and began to wonder if their mediocre grades should be attributed to their involvement in child labour (Domestic work). A healthy mind and a stimulating atmosphere are needed for a child to succeed academically. This circumstances frequently elude some children, especially those from low-income families. Child neglect has far-reaching implications for a child’s adult life, and it is dehumanizing. It fosters low self-esteem, encourages inferiority complexes, denigrates the man, and degrades one’s personality (The punch.August 14, 2004).
1.2 Statement Of The Problem
Child labour has pushed millions of Nigerian children out of their homes and out of school into the labour market, and it isn’t going anywhere. It then drags children through various forms of illness and illiteracy. Poverty is clearly a major factor in child labour. Nigeria is a developing nation. Nigeria is a starving land, with many of its inhabitants dying as a result of the country’s hunger. Poverty in Nigeria, on the other hand, is a product of human activity. As a result, social and political unrest are to blame. There is a large divide between the wealthy and the weak in the current era of bad governance marked by “winner takes all,” when the nation’s riches are divided by a few hands. and the rest are left to work their fingers to bone, leaving many families impoverished The evidence is overwhelming that children who work as children are at risk for a host of developmental and psychological outcomes as a result of their excessive exposure to danger. They are also mentally deficient (Ebigbo 1986). As a result, the study’s dilemma is posed as a challenge. What effect does child labour have on the academic success of students who partake in it as a means of child abuse?
1.3 Objective Of The Study
- Determine whether or not child labour is influenced by the socio-economic position of the parents or guardians.
- Compare and contrast the academic success of children who work as children and those who do not.
1.4 Research Hypotheses
- The socio-economic status of parents/guardians has no major impact on child labour.
- There is no statistically meaningful difference between the mean academic achievement ratings of students who participate in child labour and their peers who do not engage in those behaviours.
1.5 Significance Of The Study
The current research is significant because it will include details on the occurrence and extent of participation in child labour among secondary school students. In addition, the research would examine the pattern of relationship between child labor and high school students’ academic success. Lastly, the research will be useful to students and scholars who choose to do related studies.
1.6 Scope Of The Study
The scope of the study is to know theeffect of child labour on emotional, health and academic achievement of primary school pupils in rural areas in nigeria and it was limited to Ughelli ,Delta state.
1.7 Limitation Of Study
Given the lack of funds, testing materials, and time constraints, the study’s focus was limited.
1.8 Definition Of Terms
Child labour or child labour refers to the exploitation of children through any form of work that deprives children of their childhood, interferes with their ability to attend regular school, and is mentally, physically, socially and morally harmful.
A rural area is a large expanse of land with few houses or other structures and few inhabitants.
Academic achievement, also known as academic results, refers to how far a pupil, teacher, or institution has progressed toward their short or long-term educational objectives. Academic achievement is described as the completion of educational milestones such as high school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees.
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