The Effect Of Child Labor On Students’ Academic Performance In Selected Primary Schools

Primary Education Project and Semina Material

The Effect Of Child Labor On Students’ Academic Performance In Selected Primary Schools


Abstract


This research was carry out to investigate the effect of child labor on students’ academic performance in selected primary schools in Yaba Local government area of Lagos State. The subjects of the study were one hundred and ten. Also, the research design used in this study was survey design. The instrument used in collecting the data was structured questionnaire with four point like format while data was coded into frequency count and analysed with the use of simple percentages. The result indicates that child labour is not a way of training children to be responsible adult or culture rather it was an intentional welfare of the child. Furthermore, the major causes of child labour is poverty which has link with other causes such as broken home, early marriage, wards and natural disasters and so on. Moreover, the major influences of child labour on the academic achievement involved were lower intellectual and academic development, truancy, dropout and so on. Besides programmes such as Universal Basic Education (UBE), poverty alleviation, enactment and implementation of laws concerning children’s right, etc can help to eradicate or reduce child labour to the bearest minimum. Based on these findings recommendations were made.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

A child is the source of rejuvenation of man and his community (Kalu, 1982). In (1959) the United Nation general assembly unanimously passed the declaration on the rights of the child which stated that mankind owns the child the best, it has to give and that every child is entitled to protection in the early years (adequate health care, food and social service and prepare for later years without respect to social status, sex, race and so on).

United Nation convention and Africa charter (1987) defined a child as every human below the age of fourteen years old. Children are the largest of human species, they are the most liberable to abuse in the society. The statement does not by any means over look the multi directional efforts by the society to protect the children.Various form of child labour still exist in the society, child duty should be differentiated from child labour. Child duty is the work in which the primary emphasis on learning, training or socialization.UNICEF Nigeria (2001) as such the schedule is light and tends to be geared toward development the capacity of the child and encouraging their effort in good area of the decision making progress.

Additionally, child labour is work essentially exploitative and injurious to the physical, social, cognitive, and moral development of a child. The phenomenon of child labour is historical, it has been existence almost as long as the history of makind. Child labour is now a global problem found over all round developing countries, especially the region of African, Asia and Latin American.

According to UNICEF (1994), it is estimated that millions of children are at special risk because of poverty, wars, natural calamities disabilities and other circumstance which they may be that is the children in such condition will be separated from the relative without the protection and security which the families suppose to provide and are left vulnerable to enable from exploitation and abuse what a pity.

Exactly, as many as two hundred millions in the world, work for their own and their families survival according to UNICEF statistics. They labour in oppressive and often dangerous factory jobs, in domestic service, on the street and lanes of cities and town in degrading condition of sexual exploitation childhood a time that is suppose to be associated with help, promise and aspiration has now turned out to be a time of trouble and hardship.

Especially in developing countries where boarders of poverty so often fall heavily on the young. In this time, there has been an increase international concern over plight of total number of about two hundred and fifty millions young sister who are victims of child labour. It is not only the united nations agencies that are concerned with the issue but leading international non-government organisation sought to draw attention to the issue. There appears to be a growing consensus on the need to curb this practice.

The divided adult groups are gradually coming to an agreement on issue concerning child labour through there still remain a tough nut to crack while some black believed that total elimination may not be possible.

On the other hand, “learning outcome” which is otherwise referred to as academic achievement or academic performance in this research work has become a subject matter of importance to stakeholders (educational psychologist, teachers, academics school administrations psychometricans parents, etc) in education and to a large extent, to students who are the direct beneficiaries victims of the outcome.

Aremu and Adika (2001) submit that academic performance is interestingly important in that it is the fundamental premium upon which all teaching activities are measured using some criteria of excellence.

It is the aspiration of almost all Nigerians to educate their wards. The biting poverty to which the poor are consigned tends to frustrate the hope of the very poor to achieve this end. Parents and guardians however must be in a position to feed their children, see to their good health, have a house to shelter them, clothes them and be sure of some sufficient income to live on.

Considering the high opportunity cost of their children’s education, low-income families resort to child labour as an indispensable option for their family survival poor parents receive payments in exchange of their children’s labour and services to the rich and this affects education of their children.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

It is generally believed that the extent of child labour differs in various families, and societies due to the high cost of living Adesanwo (2007). One equally wonders whether the need for extra income in the family often compiled many parents or guardians to send their children to earn a living outside the home.

Child labour as work that is mentally, physically, socially and morally dangerous and harmful to children and interfere with their schooling by depriving them opportunity to attend schools, by obliging them to leave school prematurely or by requiring them to attempt to combine attendance with excessively large and heavy work. Child labour robs children of their interest in learning and this contribute to low literacy rate and low academic achievement in Nigeria. Therefore, the problem to examine the influence of child labour in selected primary schools in Yaba Local government area in Lagos State aid to equally budget ways to eradicate this social menace.


1.3 Purpose of the Study

This study examines the socio-cultural and economic factors in the incidence of child labour.

The purpose of this study is

  1. To understand the meaning of child labour to differentiate between child duty and child labour.
  2. To examine the causes of child labour and how these causes affect the academic achievement of pupils in Nigeria.
  3. And also to discuss the implications of child labour on academic achievement of pupils in Nigeria.
  4. Finally, to suggest possible solutions to the problems of child labour on academic achievement of pupils in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the perception of people about child labour?
  2. What are the possible causes of child labour in the local government
  3. What are the influences of child labour on the academic performance of children involved?
  4. What are the possible solutions to the problems of child labour in Nigeria?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

The following hypothesis was formulated and tested by the study

  • Ho: child labour have no significant impact on the academic performance of pupils
  • Hi: child labour have a significant impact on the academic performance of pupils

1.6 Significance of the Study

The significance to this study is to throw light on the need for government to recognize and protect the rights of a child. It is also very important that this research will put in order corrective programme which are aimed at enlightening, encouraging and educating the masses on the need to assist from child labour. Moreover, this study will add to the existing body of knowledge and will serve as a useful source of information in future.


1.7 Scope of the Study

The study is limited to some selected primary schools in Yaba Local government area of Lagos State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Child:

A child is every human being below the age of fourteen years.

Labour:

Hard physical work.

Child Labour:

This refers to hard physical work or employment of children below adult age.

Hazarding:

This refers to a risk or damage especially to someone’s health or safety.

Exploitation:

A situation in which somebody treats someone in an unfair way, especially in order to make money from their work.

Rejuvenate:

To make somebody or something look or feel younger or more lively.

Prejudicial:

Harming or likely to harm somebody or something.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  1. Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  2. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  3. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  4. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  5. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Introduction

This section presents the summary of the study, conclusion and the recommendations of the study.


5.2 Summary of the Study

The focus of this study is to understand the meaning of child labour to differentiate between child duty and child labour. The study examined the socio-cultural and economic factors in the incidence of child labour. It examined the causes of child labour and how these causes affect the academic achievement of pupils in Nigeria. And it also to discussed the implications of child labour on academic achievement of pupils in Nigeria. Survey research design was employed for the study. The researcher with the use of convenience sampling selected One Hundred and Ten respondent comprising of Head Teachers, Teachers and Parents of the pupils from five(5) selected primary school in Yaba Local government area of Lagos State. Data was analyzed using frequencies and tables.


5.3 Conclusion

Findings from the study revealed that Child labour is mentally physically, socially hazardous and harmful to children’s health.It deprives the child of that childhood experience and subjects them to difference levels of abuses-physical, emotional and sexual.It interferes with the education of the child and leads to poor academic performance.

Child labour in its most extreme forms,involves children being enslaved separated from their families, exposed to serious hazards and illness and / or left to fend for themselves on the streets of large cities often at a very early age.

The study reveals that poverty, illiteracy of parents, the demand and for cheap labour by the economic class and family traditions are the causes or factors that promotes child labour.


5.4 Recommendation

The study made the following recommendation from the findings of the study

  1. Government should improve the standard of living of its citizens. This will go a long way in eliminating poverty which is a major cause of child labour in the society.
  2. Education should be made free ad compulsory for all children until the secondary level.
  3. Government should take harsh measures against child trafficking which will in turn reduce child labour and improve children academic performance.
  4. Child rights laws should be enforced especially in the rural areas where child labour is predominant.
  5. Non-governmental organizations and well to do individuals should help to protect the rights and interest of children. They should also recognize some of these children who are promising and adopt them and provide parental attention.
  6. Employers should be sensitize on the minimum age of employment and get them access the age of their workers.

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Frequently Asked Questions


What are the effects of child labor on students?

Effects of Child Labor According to Holgadoa,. et al., (2014), there are a number of factors related to child labor that lead to poor performance. The study showed that labor conditions, the number of weekly hours dedicated to work, and the presence of work scheduled in the morning negatively affected the academic performance of child laborers.

What is child labor in education?

Child labor is the employment of a child in a business or industry especially in violation of state or federal statutes prohibiting the employment of children under a specified age (Beegle, Dehejia, & Gatti, 2009). Child labor affects schooling, but poor performance in school might also impact child labor.

Which is the best journal to study child labour in Nigeria?

Journal of Gender and Behaviour, 7 (3), 48-68. Aderinto, A. A. and Okunola, R. A. (1998), Pull and sustaining factors of child labour in Nigeria. Ife International Journal. Vol: 6, No: 1, pp. 178-184. Alokan, F. B. (2010), The correlation between parent’s educational status and child house. Humanity and social science journal.

How many children are affected by child labor?

Among 152 million children in child labor, 88 million are boys and 64 million are girls. 58% of all children in child labor and 62% of all children in hazardous work are boys. Boys appear to face a greater risk of child labor than girls, but this may also be a reflection of an under-reporting of girls’ work, particularly in domestic child labor. 

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