Effect Of Child Hawking On Educational Development
This research study examined the prevalence of child hawking and educational development. The study was carried out in Ekpoma, Edo State. The structured and unstructured questionnaires were used to elicit information from the respondents. The sample for the study comprised of 120 subjects were drawn different communities in Ekpoma town. In chapter four, the researcher present the data and the hypotheses were analyzed using the Chi (X2) Square statistical techniques.
The findings from the study showed that the incidence of child hawking is high in Ekpoma, and thus, called for serious attention. It was also found that single parenthood and child hawking, are cases of child hawking which have effect on the academic development or educational development of the child. However, it was submitted that the government and law enforcement agencies can reduce child hawking rate through adherence to the “child right act”.
1.1 Background to the Study
There is no generally accepted definition for the term ‘Child Hawking’. But it could simply be referred to as the abuse of a child by his parents or guardian or any other adult. Edu and Edu (1990), describe child abuse as a willful maltreatment of a child below eighteen years of age into street sales. Such treatment according to them can include acts of commission (abuse) and omission (neglect). A narrow definition of child hawking is united to life threatening, physical violence including severe beating, rape (sexually harassed) which are inflected on the children by the adult member of the community. A broader definition however lays emphasis on any treatment other than the most favorable care and include neglect sexual and or emotional abuse and exploitation .which ever this social problem is been define the question that comes to mind is “are children who are God’s given gifts granted freedom, comfort and peace by adults in the society?
In Nigeria, for example, the rights of citizens in chapter 4 sections 30, 40 of the 1999 constitution of the Federal Republic of Nigeria guarantees every citizen’s basic and fundamental human rights. Here, the constitution does not make any destination between the rights of adults and children to trade. Thus, children are expected to enjoy these rights. With the menace of child hawking (abuse) in the country, children are being exposed to all kinds of societal hazards. This study therefore examines street hawking in Nigeria, with a view of identifying its consequences on children.
Street trading and child hawking have become a global phenomenon and a global concern. The United Nations International Children Education Fund (NCICEF) has estimated that there are 100 and 200 million child labourers across both industrial and developing countries. Estimates for Nigeria shows that 20% of children between the age of 10 and 14 are involved in child labour and street trading. Nigeria alone is estimated to have between 12 and 15 million of child hawkers.
According to Human Right Watch (2004) Nigerians have the largest child labour force in the world. The dramatic increase in child labour and street hawking in Nigeria can be attributed to several factors. The rapid population growth of less developed countries, high rates of unemployment, inflation, low wages and deplorable working conditions have contributed to incidents of child hawking and child labour, as children attempt to help support their families (Charles and Charles 2004, Deth 1993). According to Arat (2002), the proliferation of industries can also be linked to an increase in child hawking and child labour. Social ills affecting children have been an area of active empirical investigation.
Indeed numerous studies exist on children who, along with their parents are and on weekends and holidays. This study will bring to light the dangers associated with street trading and child hawking as reported by children who engage in these practices.
1.2 Statement of Problem
Street trading and child hawking have the potential to corrupt young minds in two major ways. Firstly, a child that misses school frequently falls to benefit comprehensively from the education system. This can mean poor performance in examinations and open the door to examination malpractices for those seeking a certificate at all cost. This in turn can lead to incompetent and unlearned graduates with consequences for the nation as a whole, including increased national illiteracy.
Secondly, street trading and child hawking may also lead to behavioral patterns inimical to healthy citizenship. They may indulge in negative activities or criminal acts, such as prostitution, armed robbery, and pick pocketing and face imprisonment. (Humert, 2009 and Humphrices, 2010). Many government policies have been put in place to curb the issue of child hawking and child labour, but all to no avail. This probably is as a result of the low economic status of most Nigerians who barely earn enough to feed themselves and their children. Oruwari (1996); Okojie (1987) and Aderinto (2000) linked the phenomenon of child hawking and educational development to socio economic status of poor parents who subsist at the periphery of the urban economy.
This research will offer solutions to the menaces of child hawking and child development. It is believed that the solutions discussed below will reduce the menace to its absolute minimum in the course of this discussion this study will also attempt to address the following questions why do parent engage their children in street trading and child hawking? Are parents happy about this situation considering the dangers involved? Why have the policies of government not succeeded?
1.3 Objectives of Study
- To examine the causes of child hawking in Ekpoma
- To examine the consequences of child hawking on children.
- To examine the relationship between child hawking and development.
- To examine the relationship between child hawking and academic performance.
1.4 Research Questions
- Does parental level of financial wellbeing influence children street hawking business
- Does street hawking influence the high rate of drop out, delinquency and truancy?
- Is it the parents that often provide the wares or articles of street hawking for their children?
- What is the level of academic achievement of children who indulge in hawking?
1.5 Scope of Study
The scope of study shall lay emphasis on the effect and consequences of child hawking on child development in Ekpoma. Also, this study examines the relationship with child hawking and development.
Furthermore, this study examines government policies on how to eradicate child hawking in Ekpoma and Nigeria at large.
1.6 Significance of Study
Existing literature portray little information about child hawking and development. This study is therefore important because it will reveal child hawking practices in Ekpoma. Also, the importance of this study is to give an insight to those who will like to carry out a similar research on this topic in the nearest future.
1.7 Definition of Terms
This is used in this study as a young human being the age of puberty. In other words, a young individual below the age of 18 years.
2. Street hawking:
The act of selling of goods or foodstuffs and other items on the streets. It can also be described as act of selling, offering or exposing for sale any article in a public place.
3. Child labour:
This simply means the use of children by other adults e.g. parents/guardians for economic purpose that brings income to such adults. UNICEF defines child labour as work that exceeds a minimum number of hours depending on the age of a child (especially those below 18 years) and on the type of work.
As used in this study mean maltreatment of a person in an unjust or undesired manner. Therefore, the term child abuse refers to the physical or emotional or social mistreatment of children. World Health Organization (WHO, 2009) define it as any act or failure to act that which violates the rights of the child, to endanger his/ her optimum health, survival and development.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows
- Chapter one is concerned with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study
Summary Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter gives a summary of the study, the conclusion and recommendation
This study investigates the cause and effects of street hawking on children of school age. The sample consisted of eighty (80) males and eighty (80) females of children of school age selected from Edo state through random sampling. The research instrument used was the questionnaire (the fixed or structured responses questionnaire) and oral interview. English language was the basic language of communication between the researcher and the respondents. The sample percentage method was used in analyzing the data gotten in this study.
The study was channel through investigating of factors such as:
- The parental level of financial wellbeing influencing children street hawking business
- The level of academic achievement of children who indulge in hawking is poor due to lack of total participation and concentration in school work.
- The parents of the children investigated do not only rehearse hawking techniques with their children, but they often provide articles of hawking for these children
- Street hawking influenced the high rate of drop out, delinquency and truancy
Based on the findings of the study, it was concluded that:
- Parent’s poor income influenced the participation of their children in street hawking.
- The level of academic achievement and performance of these children who indulge in hawking activities is poor
- The parents often provide the wares or articles of street hawking for their children.
- Street hawking influences high rate of drop out underachievement, delinquency and truancy.
Based on the findings, the following recommendations were made
- With the aid of the mass media, the government should regularly educate parents of the usefulness of formal education of their education.
- Parents should ensure that they are up and doing in other to be able to meet the needs and requirements of their children academically morally, financially and otherwise
- Guidance and counseling should be assigned t guide the children in choosing their priorities
- The school should pay more attention to parents teachers association meetings.
- The children should be educated on the dangers and effects of hawking and they should be encouraged to use of their leisure hours for doing school assignments instead of hawking
5.4 Suggestions for Further Studies
This study has investigated the problem of street hawking among children of school age in Benin metropolis it is therefore suggested that:
- More respondents should be involved in future
- This same type of research should be conducted in other local government areas and other states of the federation
- Researchers should continually publicize the effects and causes of street hawking as a form of discouragement
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