Effects Of Child Abuse On The Academic Achievements Of Students Of Selected Secondary Schools

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Effects Of Child Abuse On The Academic Achievements Of Students Of Selected Secondary Schools


Abstract


This study was carried out on the effects of child abuse on the academic achievements of students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool, SPSS v23. The result of the findings reveals that emotional abuse has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school. The study also revealed that physical abuse has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school. And child neglect has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school. Therefore, it is recommended that the effects of child abuse on children’s classroom behaviour and later academic performance should receive attention in education policy forums; and that parents should always relate to their children with love and affection and provide for their needs. There should be public enlightenment programs to combat mass ignorance and public awareness on the right to freedom from all forms of child abuse.


Table of Content


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.0 Data Presentation
  • 4.1 Analysis of Data
  • 4.2 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.3 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Introduction
  • 5.2 Summary
  • 5.3 Conclusion
  • 5.4 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE 

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

All parents share the delight of bearing children and nurturing them to the point where they may reach their full potential in life. However, when children are not properly cared for by their parents or caretakers, those youngsters are frequently exposed to a variety of behaviors that obstruct their life ambitions. Many of the children are frequently subjected to maltreatment or abuse at the hands of their parents, caretakers, and other members of their communities Shonk & Cicchetti (2001). Thus, child abuse is a practice in which elderly people maltreat, assault, or deny youngsters of essential requirements in the home, street, religious houses, or at school. Child abuse can cause physical, emotional, and sexual trauma to children, as well as death. It is brought about by poverty, a lack of parental attention, unemployment, marital strife, and polygamous households. Both male and female victims of child abuse suffer anguish. Harmful behaviors on the part of children’s instructors, parents, classmates, guardians, siblings, so-called mentors, and society in general may also contribute to child abuse in numerous ways (Chalk, Gibbons, & Scarupa 2002). Thus, child abuse is not an uncommon occurrence in Nigeria. There is no longer a safe place for children since it is ubiquitous.

Chalk, Gibbons, & Scarupa (2002) asserted that child maltreatment has a detrimental effect on the kid’s physical, psychological, and behavioral development. However, in a real-world context, it is impossible to debate them separately. Physical difficulties (for example, the loss of a growing brain in a kid) might result in psychological symptoms (for example delay in cognitive development). Psychological impacts manifest mostly as high-risk behaviors that might have a negative impact on the abused child’s academic performance and, eventually, the economy. Additionally, Shonk & Cicchetti (2001) supported this notion in their study by revealing that maltreated youngsters typically have bad marks in school and do not flourish in society, hence slowing the economy. Alokan & Olatunji (2014) discovered a positive correlation between child maltreatment and children’s concentration in class and academic achievement in Nigeria using a sample of 200 instructors. This results in mistreated children being unable to concentrate in class, which has a severe effect on the Nigerian economy. Additionally, Umobong (2010) stated that child maltreatment is now common in schools, having a detrimental effect on children’s scholastic development and the economy, particularly in areas of joblessness. Gaudin (1999) also asserted that neglected and abused children had poor IQ as a result of their neglect and abuse. Since a result, the economy suffers, as mistreated children are unable to make substantial contributions to the economy.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The growing number of students and learners, as well as those who are not in school, hawking and selling things on the country’s streets and school grounds is a cause for worry that requires adequate action (Alokan & Olatunji 2014). The majority of youngsters appear emaciated and unwell, while some are in pain after being beaten and abused by criminals. The majority of these children are sent out there by their parents or caregivers; the majority of parents are interested in what the child can bring to the family through sells (hawking goods) or giving oneself for money; many drop out of school as early as primary school to engage in prostitution or street begging, while others are employed as house helps or in other menial jobs to help support the family (Edo, 2016). As a result, the child’s moral and social growth is unsupported by schooling, and their academic performance suffers. This piqued the researcher’s interest in examining the impact of child abuse on academic achievement in Nigeria, specifically in Yobe state.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine the effect of child abuse on students academic achievement. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To examine the prevalence of child abuse in Nigeria.
  2. To expatiate the causes of child abuse in Nigeria.
  3. To investigate the effect of emotional abuse on students academic achievement.
  4. To find out the effect of physical abuse on students academic achievement.
  5. To ascertain the effect of child neglect on students academic achievement.

1.4 Research Questions

The following questions will be answered in this study:

  1. Is child abuse prevalent in Nigeria?
  2. Does emotional abuse have an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school?
  3. Does physical abuse have an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school?
  4. Does child neglect have an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The study will validate the following assumptions;

  • H01: There is no significant relationship between emotional abuse and students academic achievement in secondary school.
  • H02: There is no significant relationship between physical abuse and students academic achievement in secondary school.
  • H03: There is no significant relationship between child neglect and students academic achievement in secondary school.

1.6 Significance of the Study

The various organizations have continued to emphasize the need to stop child abuse and abuse but it seems almost impossible.

The findings from this study will contribute to a broader efforts most effectively targeted on the work that is damaging to the children’s education or academic development. It is to show the extent to which child abuse affects the children’s school attendance and their academic performance.

Finally, this study will go further in helping researchers with more information on the effects of social media on student’s academic performance.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study will focus on examining the impact of child abuse on students academic achievement. Specifically, it will focus on examining the prevalence of child abuse in Nigeria, determining if child abuse has an influence student’s academic performance, examining the effects of child abuse on the academic performance of students and examining ways the scourge of child abuse can be mitigated in Nigeria.

Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State will serve as participants for the survey of this study.


1.8 Limitations of the Study

This study will be limited to examining the impact of child abuse on students academic achievement. Specifically, it will be limited to examining the prevalence of child abuse in Nigeria, determining if child abuse has an influence student’s academic performance, examining the effects of child abuse on the academic performance of students and examining ways the scourge of child abuse can be mitigated in Nigeria.

Teachers and students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State will serve as participants for the survey of this study, thus the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the state.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Impact:

A marked effect or influence.

Child Abuse:

Physical, sexual, or emotional ill-treatment or neglect of a child, especially by those responsible for its welfare

Academic Achievement:

According to “Wikipedia” Academic performance or “academic achievement” is the extent to which a student, teacher or institution has attained their short or long-term educational goals. Completion of educational benchmarks such as secondary school diplomas and bachelor’s degrees represent academic achievement. Academic performance also means the knowledge and skills that students have mastered in a subject or a course. It’s basically a measure of how well students have performed in the various assessment items set for them based on some educational criteria determined by professional educators.


1.10 Organization of the Study

The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effects of child abuse on the academic achievements of students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was on the effects of child abuse on the academic achievements of students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State.The study is was specifically set to examine the prevalence of child abuse in Nigeria, expatiate the causes of child abuse in Nigeria, investigate the effect of emotional abuse on students academic achievement, find out the effect of physical abuse on students academic achievement, and ascertain the effect of child neglect on students academic achievement. The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent areteachers and students of selected secondary schools in Damaturu, Yobe State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the statistical analysis of data collected for this study, the researcher found that;

  1. Child abuse is prevalent in Nigeria.
  2. Emotional abuse has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school.
  3. Physical abuse has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school.
  4. Child neglect has an effect on students academic achievement in secondary school.

Consequent upon the findings above, it is concluded that child abuse variables significantly affect students’ academic achievement in the research area.


5.4 Recommendations

From the findings of the study, the following recommendations were made:

  1. The effects of child abuse on children‘s classroom behaviour and later academic performance should receive attention in education policy forums; and that parents should always relate to their children with love and affection and provide for their needs.
  2. There should be public enlightenment programs to combat mass ignorance and public awareness on the right to freedom from all forms of child abuse.
  3. As much as possible, teachers/caregivers should avoid the use of corporal punishment because it only teaches children that violence is the best way of maintaining control and it encourages them to hit other children.
  4. There should be provision of nurturing and supportive child friendly school, learning environment free from noise, distractions, discrimination and abuse of any kind.
  5. A child should not be disciplined when the adult’s anger is out of control.
  6. Intense awareness should be created among teachers and school managers using seminars, workshops and training programs about what constitutes child abuse.
  7. All forms of abuse should be exposed to this class of caregivers so as to draw their attention to some of the unintentional acts that bother on child abuse.
  8. Teaching profession should be professionalized to ensure that there is no one teaching as a second best option, this would ensure that people in this profession really see it as their contribution to society’s development.
  9. Penalty for teachers’ who commit sexual abuse with their students should be severe enough to deter other perpetrators.

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