The Effect Of Bullying On Children (A Case Study Of Selected Primary School In Nvuigwe)
This study examined the effect of bullying on children a case study of selected primary school in Nvuigwe. Nvuigwe was used as area of the study. Four research questions and four hypotheses were asked and formulated respectively to serve as a guide in the conduct of the study. The descriptive survey research was used to conduct the study. The population of this study consists of all pupils in schools in Nvuigwe. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected as sample for this study. A structured questionnaire was constructed and administered to the respondents for data collection. The data obtained after the administration of the questionnaire were subsequently analyzed using simple percentages, frequency distribution table; mean and standard deviation was used for analyzing the hypotheses raised. The findings of the study revealed that the pupils are aware of bullying behaviour in the schools, there are prominent causes of bullying in schools, bullying has effect on pupils and bullying behaviour is common among pupils in primary schools in the study area. Some recommendations were stated as the way forward and they are: The schools and home should work with the counsellor collaboratively to instill good values in their children/pupils. The counsellor should inform parents to have skills and knowledge in classroom management and control. There should be school-wide education, training and bullying prevention programmes, through behaviour modification theories. The school should provide counselling and support for pupils at risk of being involved in bullying. pupils who bully often need intensive support or intervention, so it is important for schools and social service agencies to work together. The counsellor and teachers must recognize the danger of violent films and discourage their children/pupils from watching them and use insight training to stop such viewing.
Table of Content
- Title page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the study
- 1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organization of the study
- 2.1 Concept of Bullying
- 2.2 Types of Bullying
- 2.3 Characteristics of Bullies and Victims
- 2.4 Situational Analysis of Bullying Problem in Nigeria
- 2.5 Awareness of Bullying Behaviour in School
- 2.6 Causes of Bullying Behaviour in School
- 2.7 Prevalence of Bullying Behaviour in Schools
- 2.8 Prevention of Bullying Behaviour in School
- 2.9 Psychosocial and Psychological Effects of Bullying
- 2.10 Review of Empirical Studies
- 2.11 Summary of Literature Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Area of the Study
- 3.3 Population of the Study
- 3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.5 Instrumentation
- 3.6 Validity of the Research Instrument
- 3.7 Reliability of the Research Instrument
- 3.8 Procedure for Data Collection
- 3.9 Method of Data Analysis
Data Presentation and Statistical Analysis
- 4.1 Respondents Demographic Data
- 4.2 Data Analysis
- 4.3 Summary of the Findings
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary of the Study
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
- 5.4 Implications for Counselling
- 5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
1.1 Background to the Study
The school is an institution established for the formal education of the citizens of any country. Students acquire relevant knowledge, skills, positive behavior, competencies, values and abilities for useful living in the society at school. While at school, students socialize with others as they work in groups for their positive development. Positive development of students morally, socially, intellectually, emotionally and physically cannot take place if they do not see the school environment as friendly, safe and secure.
According to Fajoju (2009), only few students or pupils can blend harmoniously with their school mates without experiencing violence in school. World over, bullying of students is becoming more prevalent than ever before. It is also the most common form of aggression and violence in many schools that students engage in (Spiel, Salmivalli & Smith, 2011). Studies in some European countries (Smith, 2011), in South Africa (Malematsa, 2005) and in Kenya (Ndetei, Ongecha, Khasakhala, Syanda, Mutiso, Othieno, Odhiambo & Kokonya, 2007) show that bullying is not only common but also makes schools unsafe as perceived by learners, parents and educationists. Olweus, the pioneering researcher in bullying behaviour defined bullying as a long term exposure of the victim, to physical or verbal attack or social ostracism, intentionally perpetuated by a single or group of students (Olweus, 1993).
Bullying is one form of violence that has been threatening the life of students in school in Nigeria. Keashly and Neuman (2010) defined bullying as harassing, offending, excluding someone or negatively affecting someone’s work tasks. They continued by saying that bullying has occurred repeatedly and regularly and over a period of time. Bullying is characterized by acts of intentional harm, repeated over time, in a relationship where an imbalance of power exists (Pepler and Craig, 2007; Ma Stewin and Mah, 2001).Bullying is not just a child’s play but a terrifying experience faced by many school children every day (Craig, 1998; Beran, 2005; and Thornbery 2010). According to Einarsen, Hoel, Zapf, and Cooper (2003:15), bullying is an escalating process in the course of which the person confronted ends up in an inferior position and becomes the target of systematic negative social acts. Every day thousands of teens wake up afraid to go to school. Bullying is a problem that affects millions of students, and it has everyone worried, not just the kids on its receiving end. Yet because parents, teachers, and other adults don’t always see it, they may not understand how extreme bullying can get. Some bullies attack their targets physically, which can mean anything from shoving or tripping to punching or hitting, or even sexual assault. Others use psychological control or verbal insults to put themselves in charge.
Bullying among students of secondary school occur worldwide, among all problems of secondary school, none is as debilitating as bullying because of its effect on the bully and the victim as well. Bullying is a pattern of behaviour in which one individual is chosen as the target of repeated aggression by one or others; the target person (the victim) generally has less power than those who engage in aggression (bullies) (Baron & Bryne, 2005). Social psychologist in their definitions says that bullying is a psychological violence; a sustain aggression that strips a person of control and dignity (Paszkiewicz, 2010). Bullying is rampant in our secondary school and it has a lot of effects on the students. Is difficult to discover a secondary school today where bullying does not exist.
Generally, bullying occurs when one or more persons repeatedly say or do hurtful things to another who has problems defending him or her. Direct bullying usually involves hitting, kicking or making insults, offensive and sneering comments or threats. Repeatedly teasing someone who clearly shows signs of distress are also recognized as bullying. However, indirect bullying – the experience of being excluded from a group of friends, being spoken ill of and being prevented from making friends – can just be as painful. Crick, Nelson, Morale, Cullerton-Sen. Casas & Hickman (2001) observed that three forms of bullying exist: physical, verbal and relational.
Physical bullying involves behaviours whereby the perpetrator might punch, hit and/ or steal money from the victim. Verbal bullying includes behaviour such as the perpetrator making rude remarks and/ or name calling toward a victim. Relational bullying also known as indirect bullying (Salivalli, Kaukiainen and Lagerspetz, 1998) involves psychological harm and manipulation of social system. This third type involves situations where the perpetrator might spread rumours, backbite and/ or exclude the victim from the peer group. The forms of bullying change with age throughout the lifespan. The most common form of bullying according to Gadin & Hammarrstrom (2005) is verbal harassment – like teasing and name calling. This consistent with the findings of studies conducted on students in Norway (Due et al., 2005) and in England (Due et al., 2009).
Most bullying takes place at the same grade level. However, many times older students bully younger students. Although direct bullying is a greater problem among boys, a good deal of bullying takes place among girls. Bullying between girls, however, involves less physical violence and can be more difficult to discover. Girls tend to use indirect and subtle methods of bullying, such as exclusion from a group of friends, backbiting, and manipulations of friendships (Salivalli, 1998) far more boys than girls bully, and many girls are mostly bullied by boys, but both can be victims of bullying. Asamu (2006) opined that a good deal of bullying is carried out by older students toward younger ones. The older students often exposed the younger and weaker students to the act of bullying. Most bullying occurs on playground or in the classroom but these behaviours also occur in corridors, and in the school hall. Although a substantial portion of students are bullied on the way to and from the school. Bank (2000) observed that some children are at more risk of becoming bullies and victims than others, although this is in no way predetermined. It depends on a combination of individual, family, peer, and school experiences.
Among the characteristics of children at greatest risk of bullying and victimization researchers have identified the following: Olweus (1993) and Pepler and Craig (2000) observed that those who bully tend to be disruptive and impulsive and are generally aggressive towards their peers, teachers, parents, and others. They tend to be assertive and easily provoked, contrary to general belief. According to Olweus (1993) aggressive males who bully are not anxious and insecure under a tough exterior and they do not suffer from poor self-esteem. Typically, males who bully have an aggressive personality combined with physical strength. They have little empathy for their victims and show little or no remorse. Olweus further opined that those who bully may come from families where there is lack of attention and warmth toward the child, poor supervision, and use of physical and verbal aggression. They also had often been bullied themselves by adults and will continue bullying provided there are no consequences, the victim does not complain and the peer group silently colludes.
Generally, students who get bullied can be regarded as being passive or being submissive victims. They are usually quiet, careful, sensitive, and may start crying easily. They are unsure of themselves and have poor self-confidence or negative self-image. These boys in this group do not like to fight, and they are often physically weaker than their classmates, especially the bullies, and they have few or no friends. In Nigeria today, the attitudes of parents, educators and policy makers toward bullying are changing and it is no longer accepted as a part of a normal childhood experiences. Bullying is now considered a marker of serious or violent behaviour and information on how to effectively respond to bullying is not readily available. Of much concern is that thousands of children are afraid of going to school because of teasing and harassments. It is in the light of the above that the researcher has decided to embark upon this study in order to proffer solutions that might be of help to all stakeholders of Education in the country. Therefore, the research seeks to find out, the awareness, causes and prevalence of bullying behaviour among primary schools pupils in Kosofe Area of Lagos State.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Bullying is a very serious problem in schools. If not seriously tackled, bullying can lead to absence from school, damage to school property and even death. Some students had been hospitalized as a result of bullying which consequently affected their academic performance. In some cases, the victims of bullying do not report incidences of bullying to their parents, guardians and teachers and end up being emotionally depressed and truants. Students with special needs are worse hit because by their very nature, they are very vulnerable. Several reports on bullying that students loitering during lesson while some play in nearby compounds refusing to go to school because of fear of being bullied. As noted by Aluede (2006) and Fajoju (2009), the use of guns, knives and other dangerous weapons is now more common than ever in Nigerian school system. This causal observation and several reported cases of bullying in schools prompted this investigation with a view to identify the common types of bullying and the causes, factors of bullying and, teachers’ perception about bullying and its impact on academic performance of students and school administrators strategies for managing bullying in school so that the environment could become student friendly for their effective learning. Therefore, this study was designed to explore the effect of bullying on children (a case study of selected primary school inNvuigwe). There is the need to be able to identify some bullying traits among schooling adolescents and techniques that could be adopted to curb or substantially reduce bullying among schooling adolescents.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The main purpose of this study was to examine the effect of bullying on children (a case study of selected primary school in Nvuigwe). This general aim is expressed in the following specific objectives which are to:
- Determine the perceptions and awareness bullying behaviour by pupils in primary schools.
- Determine the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among primary schools pupils.
- Investigate the effects of bullying behaviour among pupils in primary schools.
- Examine the prevalence and extent of bullying behaviour among pupils in primary schools.
1.4 Research Questions
The research following questions was answered in this study:
- What are the perceptions and awareness bullying behaviour of pupils in primary schools?
- What are the perceived causes of bullying behaviour among primary schools pupils?
- What are the effects of bullying behaviour among pupils in primary schools?
- What are the prevalence and extent of bullying behaviour among pupils in primary schools?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses were asked and guided this study;
- The students are not aware of bullying behaviour in the schools.
- There is no prominent cause of bullying in schools.
- Bullying has no effect on students.
- Bullying behaviour is not common among pupils in primary schools.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The study has the following potential benefits. In the first place, the study findings would boost teachers’ understanding on the bullying behaviours in schools. Second, the study would provide greater insight to the school administrators, managers and teachers on the factors that contribute to bullying. Thirdly, it would provide the need for school counsellors to identify bullies, prevent victimization and help students to interact in more appropriate way with their schoolmates. Finally, it would help teacher preparation colleges and educational curriculum developers to improve their programmes so that teachers can be more effective in dealing with students’ behaviour.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study covered the effect of bullying on children (a case study of selected primary school inNvuigwe). The scope of this study covered the perception and awareness, perceived causes, effects and prevalence and extent of bullying behaviour of pupils in primary schools.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, language barriers, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.
1.9 Operational Definition of Terms
Relative to this study, definitions to the following terms are provided in order to clarify each in the context of the topic:
Bullying is the process of using aggressive behaviour manifested by the use of force or coercion to affect others, particularly when the behaviour is habitual and involves an imbalance of power.
A particular way in which a person behaves in response to a particular situation or stimulus.
In this context, is the ability to directly know and perceive, to feel, or to be of events. More broadly, it is the state or quality of being conscious of something.
A thing that gives rise to an action, phenomenon, or condition.
Is a term which means being widespread and it is distinct from incidence.
A change which is a result or consequence of an action or other cause.
Is the person who has been hurt.
1.10 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.
- Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
- Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
- Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
- Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
- Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study examined the awareness, causes and prevalence of bullying behaviour among primary schools pupils in Kosofe Area of Lagos State. In this chapter the summary of the study was derived, the conclusion arrived at after the study and the recommendations are clearly presented.
5.1 Summary of the Study
This study examined effect of bullying on children a case study of selected primary school in Nvuigwe. Four research questions and four research hypotheses were asked and formulated respectively to serve as a guide in the conduct of the study. The descriptive survey research was used to conduct the study. The study population covered students in all public primary schools in Nvuigwe. The students comprising males and females are in senior secondary two (SS 2) classes. Two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected as sample for this study and they were selected from the primary schools in Nvuigwe. A structured questionnaire were constructed and administered on the respondents for data collection. The data obtained after the administration of the questionnaire were subsequently analyzed using simple percentages, frequency distribution table; the hypotheses formulated were tested using mean and standard deviation.
The findings and research hypotheses were as follows:
- The students are aware of bullying behaviour in the schools.
- There are prominent causes of bullying in schools.
- Bullying has effect on students.
- Bullying behaviour is common among pupils in primary schools.
In conclusion, bullying has quickly become a major issue in today’s workplace. There are many ways or things to do to stop bullying many programs help to address the same protective and risk factors that bullying programs do. The best way to address bullying is to stop it before it starts.
Bullying can threaten students’ physical and emotional safety at school and can negatively impact their ability to learn. Prevention of bullying though education and awareness is possible and that all of us can play a role, we need to understand the issue of bullying more deeply. We need to learn about what the world’s best research is telling us. We need to be aware of practical approaches, policies, programs and resources that are effective. Being bullied is not a fun experience for anyone. By learning some of the facts surrounding bullying, hopefully you will be better prepared to handle a situation that you might be faced with. Just because you are not the victim of a bully doesn’t mean that you are not involved. If you see someone else bullying or someone being bullied you now have the tools to help make some positive changes. No matter what end of the bullying in the student, we need to make sure that all of us are doing our part to prevent and stop this. Bullying is a serious matter, whether we like it or not. If you do not think that you can handle the situation on your own, there is no harm in asking for help. You can find help in a variety of places, even within your own family.
As one of the most persistent and destructive forms of aggression in the continuum of violence, bullying deserves the attention of everyone. Reducing and preventing bullying requires the joint efforts of the policymakers, administrators of schools, teachers, students, parents and community members. Thus, for bullying to be reduced to its barest minimum level, the following recommendations are made:
- The schools and home should work with the counsellor collaboratively to instill good values in their children/students.
- The counsellor should inform parents to have skills and knowledge in classroom management and control.
- There should be school-wide education, training and bullying prevention programmes, through behaviour modification theories.
- The school should provide counselling and support for students at risk of being involved in bullying.
- Students who bully often need intensive support or intervention, so it is important for schools and social service agencies to work together.
- The counsellor and teachers must recognize the danger of violent films and discourage their children/students from watching them and use insight training to stop such viewing.
5.4 Implications for Counselling
The counsellor as a personality for therapy should cease the act of laziness in effecting his/her behaviour lapses. If the counsellor is functional, the cases of aggressive anti-social behaviours will be reduced to a very large extent. The teachers, housemasters, housemistresses, principals etc. are not left out of this helping situation. Be that as it may, the following are some counselling implications that could be implemented for the betterment of all.
- The counsellor should endeavour to explain to the students in group guidance/counselling that bullying is never acceptable.
- Organize a school conference day devoted to bully or victim’s problem.
- Increase adult supervision in the school premises, halls, hostels, washrooms, more radiantly.
- Emphasize the consequence of hurting others.
- Emphasize caring, respect and safety of all the students in the hostels and the classrooms.
- Enforce consistent and immediate consequence for aggressive behaviour.
- Follow-up in all instances of aggression, violence and bullying.
- Encourage positive pair relation and teach co-operative learning activities. The bully and the victim need help and they need to learn to relate to others without the abuse of power. The bully needs to be monitored and taught to communicate properly.
5.5 Suggestions for Further Research
This study suggests the following areas for further research:
- The role of counselling in curbing bullying behaviours in schools.
- Ways to reduce how bullying behaviours affect the academic performance of primary schools pupils.
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