The Effect Of Broken Homes On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria

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The Effect Of Broken Homes On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria


The study examined the effects of broken home on academic performances of secondary student schools in Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted with the sample consisting of 200 students and teachers drawn from ten randomly selected secondary schools in Esan West Local Government Area, Edo State, Nigeria. One validated instrument (Effect of Broken Homes on Academic Performance of Secondary School Questionnaire (EBASSQ) was used for data collection and the data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistic. three null hypotheses were answered.

The results showed that there were no significant effects on secondary school students in term of broken home. There were no significant differences in the academic performances of secondary school students from broken homes and unbroken homes. There is no significant effect on the academic performance of secondary school students in term of socialization of the home. It is recommended that school counsellors should be employed in all schools where they should provide necessary assistance to students especially those that are from single-parent families or broken homes to enable them overcome their emotional concerns. Implications of the findings for the parents and the school counsellors were highlighted.

Chapter One


The home is the primary institution for children, home as perceived by Abdulganiyu (1997), Christe (2009), defined home as a place in which an individual or a family can rest and store personal property. Haven’t define the concept of home it is therefore important to define family. The family can therefore, be looked at as a social group characterized by common resident, economic, cooperation and production. When a child is born, the family is the first primary group with which they come into contact. Transmission of social values of right and wrong, what is morally and religiously accepted or condemned by the family, it follows therefore that by the time a child attained five to seven years of age he must have learnt what are his rights, obligations and roles within the society.

However, the background of a student goes along way to determine his/her individuality. As the child enters schools, he/she will start manifesting different attitudes and expectations. In addition they may be of the same age group, developed at different rates and so may be able to cope with the intellectual and social task of the school in varying extent. However, a home can either be stable or broken.

A stable home is one in which both parent (mother and father) lives together with their children, while a broken home is the one in which one or both of the parents are not living together with the children. It is the level at which the home operates that determine the academic achievement of a students in school. Broken homes been it unstable can influence the achievement of a students academically. Also, children that have suffered from neglect or lack of love (in broken homes) are known to be psychologically imbalanced to face the realities of life. When there is disunity in the family, or a difference between a mother and a father, the child is caught in the middle and will be at disadvantage. According to Blackby (2000), adequate research needs to be conducted in this direction to ensure smooth transition of children from early stages to adulthood.

1.1 Background of the Study.

Many authors have defined the home and deal fully and give various definitions to it. According to Homeby (2004), broke home is a home in which the parents are separated or divorced or are no more together as a result of death. In the same way Udry (2004), define a broken home means a house in which the parental are no more living together. Other researcher studies been carried out on broken homes seem to agree that broken home are associated increase aggressive and juvenile delinquency in children. From such home (broken home) children from this lack proper care and security. In assessing the definition such as a situation (broken home can result to poor academic achievement in student as once the child misses such opportunity of guide, securities affection and assistant where necessary).

Home and the Childs’ family provide the best and first education since the child serve as teachers. The parent laid the foundation for the desired social, moral, emotional spiritual and intellectual well being of the child. The training a child received from home is of imperative in his/her total personality formation and the academic performance as a student in secondary school. It can also be observed that the pattern of life in the home (stable or broken), the economic and social status of the family in the community and many other conditions that give the performance of student in the school,

Abdulganiyu (2002), started that research have shown that children differs in various ways as a result of variable of their home background such as socio-economic status, parental attitude to school and child rearing practices. These home background variables are also found to be positive related to children’s academic performance.

Also Giwa (1997), have also investigated the various factors within the students home background or family that affect their academic performance in school, variable such as socio-economic status, family size, birth order, parental attitude child rearing practices parental absence or presence have been found to affect social and intellectual learning experience of children in school.

This is so, because children are born with some psychological, emotional and intellectual needs such as need for love and security, the need for new experience, the need for praise and recognition and need for responsibility. Many of these needs are not offered to the children of broken home which influence their performance in school. The extent to which these needs are met during the formative years of children between birth and the age of six or seven in the extent to which they enter school well equipped or ready to deal with the social and emotional aspects of schooling. Based on the observation above and in line with the assumption that economic and social future of many children in most localities is being undermined by cultural practices that promotes widespread divorce amongst couples and brought unnecessary hardship to the growing children.

It is pertinent at this juncture to point out in spite of all the needs expressed as to be met by the students most especially secondary school students, this research also has intended to seek for how much secondary school student is affected in academic achievement, either as a result of his home been stable or broken.

1.2 Statement of the Problem

In our society, children are sometimes exposed at an early age to all sort of dangers arising from malnutrition, diseases and various temptation of surviving due to absence of one or both of their parents. Student’s life in broken homes is observed to be associated with emotional stress that can impair intellectual development, thereby giving way for such children to grow up without being trained properly. However, absence of one or both parents deprives young children of the stable love, care, security and total support they have been accustomed to and tend to make children different in the eyes of the peer group. If children are asked where the missing parent is or why they have a new parent to replace the missing parents, they become embarrassed and ashamed.

They may also feel guilty and unwanted by the society, such stressful situation leads to psychological, emotional and intellectual imbalance in growing children. These subsequently result to quitting from school or poor academic achievement of secondary schools student as education require critical thinking, relax mind and proper family support to be able to perform to expectation in the school. Hence it becomes necessary to investigate factors that cause broken homes with a view to finding solution to the problems for psychological well being of growing children in our society, and these lead us to look at the effect of broken homes on the academic performance secondary schools students in Nigeria.

1.3 Research Questions

The following research questions are formulated to guide this study.

  1. Does the home have any significant effect on secondary school student in Nigeria?
  2. Does broken home have any significant effect on the academic performances of secondary school students in Nigeria?
  3. Does the socialization of the home have any significant effect on the academic performances of secondary school students in Nigeria?
  4. Is there any significant different in the academic performance of secondary school student from broken homes and these from unbroken home?

1.4 Research Hypothesis

  1. There is no any significant effect on secondary school students in term of broken homes.
  2. There is no any significant difference in the academic performances of secondary school students from broken homes and from unbroken homes.
  3. There is no any significant effect on the academic performances of secondary school students in term of socialization of the home.

1.5 Objective of the Study

The main objective of this research work includes the following.

  1. To assess the impact or effect of broken homes influence on secondary schools students in Nigeria.
  2. To find out the causes of broken homes and the solution in Nigeria.
  3. To seek for solution for widespread divorce among couples.
  4. To find out how absence of one or both parent influence secondary schools students academic performances in school.
  5. To suggest ways of women and men unnecessary divorce

1.6 Significance of the Study

The purpose of this study is to find out causes of broken home on academic performance of secondary schools students in Nigeria. This is with a view to suggest ways of minimizing and overcoming the problem. Home play very significant role in child personality formation and socialization, broken homes are identified as one of the factor that undermined the socialization process at home, which consequently affect the performance of student. If the concern of education, secondary schools in particular is to look after socialization process of the child as well as his intellectual development, then this research work would be of great importance to parents and educators, teacher and society at large that absence of one or both of the parent affect children educational career.

Lastly, it will be of benefit to future researchers as the finding will serve as a source of literature review.

1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study

Though, the questions which prompted this study were found to be in existence in different part of the country, most especially in the northern part of the country, it is not possible for this research to cover all such areas. This is because the research/ researchers cannot obtain data from all places concerned due to lack of time and resources (both human and material resources). As the title of the research reads, the research will be limited to only Esan West Local Government Area of Edo state and it should be noted that the work may not represent some areas in the local government and not all people during the course of the research exercise will cooperate, hence the research is bound to experience limitation.

Chapter Five

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation


This chapter is the conclusion part of the research work titled “ The Effect of Broken Homes on Academic Performance of secondary school Students in Nigeria ”. The research which have looked into the rate at which students from broken homes and those from stable homes differ in their academic achievement.The issue of broken home has sparked a lot of debate as to what causes broken home, how it can be minimized and also who those are at disadvantage the parents (Fathers or Mothers) or the children. Despite the facts that broken homes is everywhere, but it is more common in the northern part of the country where a lot of mothers have left their matrimonial homes as a result of one problem or the other and in the course of doing that their children is being taken care of by a new mother or none at the end of the day. It is in view of these that this research looked in to the causes of broken homes, the effect of broken homes on the academic performances of secondary school students and the possible solutions to broken homes in Nigeria

5.1 Summary of Findings

The present empirical survey has thrown some light on the issue of broken homes versus academic performance of secondary school student in Nigeria, the relationship between school and the home in term of students’ progress in learning. How much the home affects the students with regard to whether broken or stable homes. The research work was also able to find out there are less number of broken marriages in the area of study as the research include 36% married people, 13% of respondent were not living together and 50% are still single.

However, the students from this area were not seriously affected especially in areas of their educations, love and affection as proved by the adopted instrument. It has also been reached that broken home is been caused by lack of understanding among couples as it was clearly indicated by the TABLE IV, were the mean at which broken home occur happen to be 3.05 which is above average mean used by researchers, though broken home can be caused by other factors too, but the research have shown that most of the broken homes in Nigeria are resulted from lack of understanding among couples. It has also been observed that the wide speed of divorce among the people of community have impact on the students in the area as presented in table XIV. Moreover, broken homes is said to have effect on secondary school students performance in Nigeria as this is inline with the analysis of TABLE III which presented majority of respondent response to Strong Agreed to “broken home have any effect on secondary school student achievement.

Finally, result shows that from the instrument adopted for this research that in fact there is significant effect on secondary school student in term of broken home

5.2 Conclusion

Base on the survey carried out, the result of the analysis and summary, it can be concluded that. On the whole there is no significant different in academic performances of secondary school students from broken homes and those from stable homes. If opportune to be placed under same condition, home background as well shown love and affection by their parents (Fathers and Mothers) they can perform well if not even better than those from a stable home. This study also shows clearly that parental separation can produce a stressful life transition for students. Parental separation poses specific adaptive difficulties for many student of secondary school who experienced it.

5.3 Recommendation

On the bases of the result obtained in the research and the literature reviewed in the work, the following are recommended.

  1. The home play vital role in child up bringing so parents should endeavor to stay in their matrimonial home to ensure good welfare of their children.
  2. Couples should do everything possible to understand one another and also show love and caring to their counterparts.
  3. Secondary school students regardless of their background can do better in school, so children should be encourage right from their homes as it goes along way in helping them achieve in school.
  4. Secondary school students from broken homes should be given educational career guidance.
  5. Parents should endeavor to develop good relationship with their children even after separation.
  6. Spouse should lower their expectations towards their marriage partners.
  7. Friends and relatives should not interfere in their kins /friends matrimonial affair, and also early and forceful marriage should be avoided as the need for couples to know and love one another cannot be over emphasized.
  8. Women should have good knowledge of house keeping either educated or not.
  9. Parents should try to always meet the needs of their children as it aids their learning abilities.
  10. Government should introduce programme that will foster harmony in matrimonial home and in the society.

5.4 Recommendation For Further Study

The following points may be put into consideration by anybody who wish to conduct research in this area that is “the effect of broken homes on academic performance of Secondary school students in Nigeria ” in future.

  1. The researcher(s) may consider using the marks obtained by Secondary school students in examination as this can be used for Statistical analysis, for a more fairly accurate result.
  2. The researcher(s) should have more time enough to enable them collect the relevant data recommended above.
  3. Questionnaires should be used to seek information on the student’s background, school facilities and variables that are known to affect the academic achievement of Secondary school students.
  4. The researcher(s) may consider using examination result of senior secondary certificate examination (S.S.C.E) as this will enable the Researcher to judge the students accordingly.
  5. The researcher(s) may also consider using population of students in higher institutions to see the number of Secondary school students from broken homes that further their studies and how they cope with the society as grown up children in the polytechnics, colleges of education and universities.

The Effect Of Broken Homes On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria

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The Effect Of Broken Homes On Academic Performance Of Secondary School Students In Nigeria


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