The Effect Of Billboard Advertising In Product Promotion (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)

Project and Seminar Material for Mass Communication

The Effect Of Billboard Advertising In Product Promotion (A Case Study Of Enugu Metropolis)


The aim of this research work is to find out the Effects of Billboard Advertising on product promotion in Enugu metropolis. To do this, we used survey research method to elicit the desired information from the sample produce.

In this work we started the research problem, set the objective and significance of the study, communicated the research questionnaire, reviewed some relevant literature, defined some terms, and hypothesis. In the work, the whole of the given-tested hypotheses was empirically supported.

From the findings, we concluded that.

  1. Billboard create awareness of product existence, more especially on newly introduced goods, and increase the sales.
  2. Billboard advertising is more likely to convey that other forms of advertising.
  3. Billboard advertising appeal more to advertisement than other forms of advertising, and position goods and services quicker in people’s mind than any other media.
  4. Billboard generally influences consumers’ decision
  5. Billboard advertising does complement other means of advertising, thereby carrying the same message on product and services with radio, TV and other media.

After analyzing our findings and drawing our conclusion, we made some recommendations.

Table Of Content

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of research problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the Study
  • 1.6 Hypothesis
  • 1.7 Definition of Terms
  • 1.8 Assumptions
  • 1.9 Limitation of the study
  • References.

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Introduction
  • 2.2 Sources of literature
  • 2.3 Contemporary mass media theories related to effects of Billboard Advertising
  • 2.4 Historical Development of Advertising
  • 2.5 Billboard Messages
  • 2.6 Society’s Uses and Attitude to Advertising
  • 2.7 The Advertising Media
  • 2.8 Media Selection
  • 2.9 Summary
  • References.

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Population of Study
  • 3.2 Sampling Procedure
  • 3.3 Sample size
  • 3.4 Measuring Instrument
  • 3.5 Data Collection
  • 3.6 Data Analysis
  • 3.7 Expected Results
  • References.

Chapter Four

Data Analysis and Results

  • 4.1 Introduction of Data Analysis
  • 4.2 Analysis of Hypothesis
  • 4.3 Discussion

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Recommendation and Conclusion

  • 5.1 Summary and Recommendation
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Bibliography
  • Appendix.

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Advertising has grown increasingly popular as an object of academic inquiry, a field of professional practice and an index of modern business. It has come to assume the centre of modern marketing and it is one of the major forms of promotion in product and service marketing. Billboard advertising has assumed a wider and prominent position in product promotion in recent times in Nigeria. Despite electronic media, billboard advertising got product promotion on the increase.

This new discovery in product promotion has not only given rise to advertising agencies that specialized only in billboard advertising, and also a strong association of billboard advertising in Nigeria which is recognized by advertisers as a subsidiary of the advertising practitioner Council of Nigeria APCON. But as has been articulated by Adeyemi (1969), the constitutional provision on freedom of expression can be said to amount only to an ordered freedom of which cannot be used as a license to spread communication that debased public morality. However, many of these ethical principles have in the course of time grown to become statutory regulation codified laws. Decree 55 of 1988 among other provisions provides that APCON show regular and control the practice of advertising in all its aspects and ramifications. It is in exercise of this immense and wide power conferred on it, that APCON developed a code of ethics to guide and regulate the practice of advertising in Nigeria.

The evidence increase in billboard advertising under sources the effectiveness of billboard in project promotion. Billboards ensure frequent and repeated exposure to the advertisement. Billboards are usually located at points with higher vehicular and human traffic.

Consequently, users of such points are regularly exposed to the advertisement in the board. Secondly, billboard, also offer a high degree of locational flexibility. In other words, the boards can be placed where the advertisers actually intended them to be. In addition, they tend it has lower cost per thousand that most of the other media. They are usually more cost efficient, especially for the advertiser with a small budget. Billboard offers the advantage of very good colour reproduction and at the same time it is an effective reminder medium offer servicing as a catalyst for buyer who buy io impulse. The greatest problems encountered by advertisers and their agencies with regard to billboard are site monitoring. Monitoring is usually difficult and so when posters get torn or washed out, it takes a while to discover and repost. This is because the sites are usually scattered around very far geographical locations.

The posters used on the boards are usually tedious to print and post especially when the number of sites to be covered are too many. In other to be covered are too many. In other words, boards make intense creative demands on the agency. Because they are usually seen in a fleeting second, they have to be powerfully executed so as to intrude on the passers-by’s consciousness. In this case they tend to function better as reminder media and therefore cannot serve well as the primary and sole medium for an advertising campaign. Aside its cost efficient contributes to environmental aesthetic and enduring feature of landscape of towns, in the country. Although the voice of the street vendor in Nigeria grows fainter with each passing year, it is still possible to hear the mournful call and tinkling bell of the old clothes and junk man, the call of the itinerant fruit peddler with his pushcart, or the street corner vendor of hot chestnuts. And what will a football game be without the kids hawking peanut and soft drinks? Much the same call in a different language, echoed in the street.

Again, if you will glance down the length of the street in Enugu metropolis, you will notice that the storekeeper around the town have taken some pains to make sure they are not unobserved just as the market keepers did in Ogbete main market so you can see that broadcast advertising (Billboard) have all been around for a long time. But it wasn’t until the middle ages, with the world shaking advent of the printing press and moveable type, the advertising began to take the firm most familiar to us today.

Winstan Fletch, (1979), identifies the following determinant of the strength of a billboard advertising, such as, the number of posters put in any given area the size of the poster, the specific sitting of the poster and the length of the campaign. Because of the problem of more boards in a given area, the greater the problem of dotter, many authorities regulate the sitting of boards as to prevent their indiscriminate location poster come in standard sizes referred to as sheets. The dimensions of a single sheet are usually expressed in inches for easy handling and processing. A single limit of sheet is usually 20 inches wide by 30 inches deep. The most commonly available poster formats are 16 sheets, 32 sheets and 48 sheets.

In addition, there is the painted board or bulletin boards, which are hand-painted (instead of printed posters) and typical sizes are 14 feet by 48 feet. Posters sited at busy locations or junctions with high human and vehicular traffic are often more effective than those at less endowed locations. Furthermore, the longer the duration of a campaign the more impact it tend to have.

Outdoor advertising has become a major advertising firms in Enugu metropolis and an indispensable source of revenue for Enugu State Government. While advertisers buy space in Newspapers and magazines, for outdoor they rent sites. In Enugu metropolis, renting a site centers on an advertiser the right of having his poster displayed on the site. To do this, advertiser or his agency will retain an outdoor advertising company. The advertising companies will have to usually built and acquire a particular site it wants or chooses from the ones the billboard company supplies. It pays the outdoor agency for the production of the posters as well as rental fee for the sites. Its media and client service monitor the posting to ensure that all the sites are constantly and clearly posted throughout the duration of the campaign.

For all the media enumerated, management of the advertising operation is very delicate task, since in most cases, advertising represents a significant source of corporate profitability. For billboard companies particularly, the key task will entail keeping a tab on advertising agencies and solicitation so that they can use the billboard firm for their campaign. Other task include monitoring of sites to ensure that posters are in good order and properly posted, invoicing agencies for sites created and posted, ensuring prompt payments and prompt payment of rental charges to the state government via local authorities. In executing this research, the researcher will try to identify why billboard advertising seems to be more popular than other means of advertising in terms of product promotion in Enugu metropolis. Also this study will try to find out the acceptability of billboard advertising in the society. Among other things, this study also hopes to establish the contribution of billboards to product promotion and consumption.

1.2 Statement of Research Problems

There has been an appreciable growth in product and services promotion activities by marketers in Nigeria, especially through advertising. Recently, below, the line advertising especially billboard has gained tremendous popularity. Going round the major roads and street in Enugu metropolis particularly strategic location will reveal the degree of usage ad number of colourful billboard of various sizes carrying advertisement promotion products of various manufactures.

They are located in strategic traffic points. Also rural areas are not spread of this billboard galore. Why his sudden increase in the use of billboard? Could it be that billboard has acquired new potency for product promotion? This and many were ignited the researcher, to look into the effect of billboard in product promotion with special emphasis on Enugu metropolis as a case study.

1.3 Objective of the Study

This study has among other objective the following.

  1. To find out if billboard advertising is increasing in Enugu metropolis.
  2. To determine the effectiveness of billboard advertising in product promotion.
  3. To determine why it appeals to prospective product consumers.
  4. To find out whether it carried or reinforces the same message with other media in the same product.
  5. To find out the contribution to environmental beauty or otherwise.

1.4 Research Questions.

For this study, the following questions are raised.

  1. Is billboard advertising on the increase in Enugu metropolis?
  2. Do Nigerian advertisers patronize billboard advertising?
  3. Do billboard advertising influence consumers in Enugu metropolis.
  4. Does billboard advertisement message reinforce electronic and print media message?
  5. Does billboard advertising contribute to environmental beauty?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This study brings to our knowledge the degree of influence other product promotion activities and advertising exerts on billboard advertising.

The study will also serve as a guide to manufacturers and advertisers in their day-to-day management of product promotion via the billboard advertising. On the other hand, this study will serve as literature/good feasibility study for prospective investors in billboard advertising sub-sectors.

1.6 Hypotheses

  1. H1 Billboard advertising is more likely to convey the advertising message better than other forms of advertising.
    H0 Billboard advertising is not more likely to convey the advertising message better than other forms of advertising.
  2. H2 Billboard advertising appeals more than other forms of advertising.
    H0 Billboard advertising does not appeal more than other forms of advertising.
  3. H3 Billboard advertising influences consumer in his choice of product or service.
    H0 Billboard advertising does not influence consumer in his choice of product or service.
  4. H4 Billboard advertising message contradicts other advertisings messages.
    H0 Billboard advertising message does not contradict other advertising messages.
  5. H5 Billboard advertisings tend to be defacing the beauty of our citizens more than other forms of advertisings.
    H0 Billboard advertisings do not deface the beauty of our citizens more than other forms of advertising.

1.7 Definition of Terms

Conceptual and Operational:

1. Effect:
  • Conceptual: This refers to the striking impression of message a picture or an event has on the individual or society.
  • Operational: This refers to the average number of Enugu residents that the picture and wording of Coca-Cola billboard have made striking impression on.
2. Promotion:
  • Conceptual: This is the publishing and advertising of product tangible or intangible.
  • Operational: This is the placement of board – Coca Cola drink in strategic places in Enugu metropolis.
3. Product:
  • Conceptual: This refers to a bundle of utility offered to the consumer by a profit and non-profit organization.
  • Operational: This refers to the average number of product advertisement that are placed on billboard in various strategic places in Enugu metropolis.

1.8 Assumptions

  1. Billboard advertising is not a remainder medium in Nigeria
  2. Billboard advertising if properly packaged, beautifies the environment.
  3. It is assumed that billboard advertising is easy to understand and repeat.
  4. It is assumed that communication is very simple with few words and big illustrations.
  5. It is also assumed that billboard advertising on the streets is seen by passers-by who can only take a brief and hold message.

1.9 Limitation of the Study

Time for the study was not enough to do more than is done. The study is restricted to only billboard advertising and is limited to Enugu metropolis for convenience. The measuring instrument adopted also constituted limitation on its own.

However, the researcher turned the necessary stones – finance was a serious handicap and uncooperative attitude of people during research.

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Recommendations and Conclusion

5.1 Summaries and Recommendation

Basically, the aim of this study has been to investigate the effects of billboard advertising in product promotion. The need of this kind of study has become prominent following the high tastes of society as well as enlightened knowledge of current practice and behaviour existing in some advanced countries where the taste of consumers play a vital role in the designing pricing production and promotion of goods and services.

The review of current research works on the subject was relatively exclusive. This is due to the general interest that people have in field of advertising and the various published books and journals dealing with the subject. In relating the literature review to the objective of this study, the result was clear-cut. There was a clear pointer showing the effectiveness of billboard as a good means of advertising.

As regards the research methodology, the method of data collected was survey while the method of analysis was through statistical method i.e. percentage in the case of research question and chi-square in the case of hypothesis.

The research work was limited to Enugu metropolis as the sampling population. The major limitations were the time and financial constraints as well as lack of relevant statistics on the advertising industry in Nigeria and comprehensive record of researches carried on advertising topics.

Billboard creates awareness of product existence more especially newly introduced goods and increases the sales.
Billboard advertising appeal more to advertisers than other forms of advertising and position goods and services quicker in people’s minds than any other media.

Billboard generally influences consumer decision. Billboard advertising does contradict other advertising messages, thereby carry the same message on products and service with Radio and TV.

5.2 Recommendation

Judging from the result of the research and conclusions drawn, the following recommendations could conveniently be made at this point.

For the fact that billboard creates awareness of products existence, more especially newly introduced goods and increases sales I recommend that these billboard should be a master of concern to our advertisers. This should contain more information, no matter how small the text can be. It is a bone of most advertisements in this country that they always concerned with what they sell and what they buy. Nobody cares to tell the consumer where he can get the products and how to use it. Whereas most of the time these are the real forms of information that consumers want.

Based on this, it is my conviction that Nigeria advertisers should be careful in choosing the word/statement they make in delivering their advertising packages. Effort should be made to ensure that all claims made by product and services are real and verifiable because nobody will take advertisement serious if they contain two much exaggeration, one statement, or half-truths. We also recommend that retail prices of these products on billboard should be indicated to help the consumers decide on a particular product among several competing products. It is now characteristics of almost every advert in Nigeria, mass media to carry prices different from what is obtainable from the market. Therefore, these billboards must bear not only the prices, but also their real market value.

I chose to limit the scope of this study to billboard only. It will be of great interest to see if the result will change by introducing other media such as transit, direct mail, cinema, point of purchase and others.

Lastly, the proportions of this study were hampered by a lot of factors and were subject to serious limitations. Any future study can succeed in overcoming those limitations will obviously be more valid than this. It will therefore, be of interest to see people pick up the torch from where I have dropped it.

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