Effect Of Banditry On The Education System In Nigeria (A Case Study Of Kaduna State)
The major aim of this study was to investigate effect of banditry on the education system in Nigeria (a case study of Kaduna state). A total of 1000 made up of 500 each of male and females responded to a self-structured validated questionnaire designed for the study. three research questions were formulated to guide the study. Means and standard deviations were calculated to answer the research questions and independent samples t-tests were used for testing the hypotheses. Major findings revealed that banditry of school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while students’ gangsters, smoking of Indian hemp, abusing other hard drugs, cult and related violent activities were some of the factors that constituted banditry of the school environment which eventually cause boys to leave school and join trading while leading girls to drop out and settle for marriage. Based on the findings, it was recommended that owners of schools and other stakeholders in education should take bold steps to fence and protect school environments from intruders to ensure safety of the students.
1.1 Background to the Study
Banditry in schools has been studied in diverse ways in the literature. For instance, in most sub-Saharan African countries, banditry has been studied at the state level, especially where the state uses its repressive mechanisms to quell student rioters and put student leaders in prison under torture (O’Malley 2007). On the other hand, in Middle Eastern countries such as Iran and Palestine, focus has been on attacks on educators as well as how wars can stop children from getting an education (O’Malley 2007). For example, in countries like Afghanistan and Palestine, statistics have recounted numbers of teachers killed as a result of violent conflict and abductions (Human Rights Watch 2006). In North America and Europe, the interest in schools and banditry has mostly been directed at war-torn countries like Afghanistan, Colombia, Democratic Republic of Congo, Sudan and Iraq. In these countries, O’Malley writes, “schools, places that should be safe for children, have increasingly become the prime target of attacks by armed parties” (2007).
Banditry has been identified as being an anathema to education patronage and development. (Hausler, Urban & Mc Corquodale, 2011; The World Bank, 2011; Abdulrasheed, Onuselogu & Obioma, 2015) as neighbourhood become insecure (Abdulrasheed, Onuselogu & Obioma, 2015); and schools and colleges are looted, destroyed and abandoned, teachers assassinated, scholars threatened, and students recruited as child soldiers (Hausler, Urban & Mc Corquodale, 2012; Jones &Naylon, 2014).
The 2011 World Bank Development Report found that people in fragile and conflict-affected states are more than three times as likely to be unable to send their children to school as those in other developing countries. Access to education has been identified as the panacea to the ‘persistent challenges of banditry facing Nigeria’ (Ndoma-Egba, 2014). In the same vein, falling education coupled with illiteracy have been identified as the main cause of banditry in the northeastern part of Nigeria (Asaolu, 2012; 2015, Murray-Bruce, 2013). Although Nigeria has the world’s worst record of having some 10 million children out of school, with nine out of these ten millions coming from the North (NyesomWike quoted in Naij.com, 2015), data on prevailing literacy level in Northeastern Nigeria suggest that basic education has been experiencing serious problems in the region before the insurgences. For instance, basic education in Borno State were shown to had shortage of classes for teaching and learning, shortage of instructional materials and teachers (NUT, 2007); teachers’ salaries were not paid, leading to frequent strike by basic school teachers (NUT, 2008). As at 2013, Yobe and Borno have the highest illiteracy levels in the country. A whopping 83.3% of boys over 6 and adult men in Yobe state have no formal Western education. The figure for Borno which is number two on the list is 63.6%.
The concept of banditry connotes the state or quality of being insecure. Security in simple terms means protection of lives and properties from destruction. According to Onifode, Imhonopl and Uorim (2013) security is the dynamic condition which involves the relative ability of a state to counter threats to its core values and interest and their primary beneficiaries are the citizens. In addition, sharing the view Abraham Maslow, Iyenger (1977) stated that an insecure person perceives the world as a life threatening jungle, feels unsafe, unhappy, rejected, hostile, and pessimistic, shows a sign of tension, conflict and guilt, and tends to be neurotic and generally egocentric. It therefore seems that when a student studies in an environment that is characterized by banditry, the student may suffer socially, mentally and emotionally and it makes sense hypothetically to state that all these are likely to affect not only his behavior and psychosocial adjustment but may also affect his academic performance.
According to Ojukwu and Nwanma (2015), insecure school environment, including the dilapidated conditions and teachers’ negative attitude to condone and accept the emotional needs of students, which will lead to undue influences and clashes of a local community interfering with school business. Also, they stated that in insecure school environments the psychological problems of the students are never met or carelessly handled, there are always segregations in the school community along religions, tribal and sectarian lines as students may ignore teachers’ directives and may also challenge the teachers on certain concepts and school properties may likely be deliberately damaged by the students to show their disapproval of managements decisions (Ojukwu & Nwanma, 2015).
Also Ojukwu and Nwanma (2015) reported that in a school environment characterized by banditry, lateness is the norm in school and students are allowed to freely use handsets and phones. Annually, the external results of the school are always bad as a result of poor teaching climate of the school as having been shown by 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013 and 2014 WAEC results cited above. Other instances of banditry of the school environment include that sometimes female staff and students complain of being raped or impregnated leading to school dropout (Ojukwu & Nwanma, 2015). Also, parents complain that their children are bullied and injured and the classrooms are overcrowded, poorly ventilated and lit (Ghazi, Shahzada, Tariq & Khan, 2013). The above painted school environment may most likely affect education system.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Recently major stakeholders in Education such as government, industries, communities, parents, schools even students and many others have been lamenting over the poor quality of Nigerian students in both learning and character suggesting a poor academic performance. Researchers and authors have speculated reasons for the failure on the part of the Nigerian students in secondary schools including those in Kaduna state to acquire the necessary social, psychological and academic skills to cope with demands of life and living in and outside the school. Their findings and suggestions tend to point at those issues which tend to waste students’ time and then have false notions about true life situations. Others have focused on teaching and learning materials as well as students themselves. Educators have long emphasized that many students perform poorly in their academic work not because they do not possess the mental ability to do well. An area that seems to have been neglected by researchers is the issue of banditry, its effect on the education system and the effect it could have on the academic performance of the school students.
According to Ojukwu and Nwanma (2015), since the inception of democracy in Nigeria in 1999, banditry has become a major issue of concern to every citizen. On a daily basis the media has continued to highlight and discuss incessant cases of armed robbery, kidnapping, bombings, abductions, rape, cultic activities and a high rise in ethnic and communal clashes, which have become regular occurrences and have characterized life in Nigeria (Nwangwa, 2014). Media report are awash with the number of lives lost as a result of terrorist, insurgent and other attacks that seem to be alarming. As if some places in the country can be walled off from the negative impact of banditry, our academic (schools) institutions have also become hot spots where cases of banditry are recorded (Ojukwu & Nwanma, 2015). The main interest, motivation and problem of this study therefor is to investigate the effect of banditry on the education system in Nigeria.
1.3 Research Questions
The following research questions are put forward by the researcher to help solve the problem solved by the researcher:
- What is the level of banditry in Kaduna State?
- What is the level of academic performance of students in Kaduna State?
- Do banditry influence education system in Kaduna State?
1.4 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to access the Impact of banditry on the education system in Nigeria
The specific objectives therefore include:
- To know the level of banditry in Kaduna state.
- To know the level of academic performance of students in Schools in Kaduna State
- To identify the impact of banditry in Education system in Kaduna State
1.5 Significance of the Study
Given the wide ranging effects of students’ poor academic performance, disruption in the school system and its concomitant social and destructive emotional effects on the students, parents, society and the nation. It is appropriate and should be a welcome development to investigate the effect of banditry on the education system with the view of proffering solutions for a better performance.
The findings of this research work will be relevant to teachers, parents and guardians, counselors, government. Practically, this study will benefit the primary school board by equipping them with the practical knowledge required to plan students learning environment and necessary safety measures required to make their learning environment conducive so that student’s academic performance can be greatly enhanced. It would also benefit the primary school teachers and head teachers by helping them identify risk areas in schools as it influences student’s safety for a proactive preventive measure to be taken.
Parents and guidance will be able to have the knowledge required to access a school to determine its safety before determining if they should send their children to such schools or not. The government will be informed on the need for ensuring a conducive and safe learning environment with tips on what an ideal school environment should look like.
Theoretically, scholars, students and researcher from all spheres of life will find this material relevant for referencing purpose and further research when approved.
1.7 Scope and Delimitation of Study
This study will be conducted in schools in Giwa L.G.A. of Kaduna state. This will be used to represent the whole as the constraints and limitation of not being able to sample the entire population of Kaduna state. The delimited area to be covered by the researcher includes: school structure, school location, school environment, school administrative environment school type and size, as they relate to banditry and how it can influence the education system in Giwa L.G.A.
1.8 Definition of Terms
A school is owned, controlled and managed by the government. They are also maintained at public expenses for the education of the children and usually free of charge.
The condition of being protected from or unlikely to cause
danger or injury. It can also be seen as the state of being safe; from the occurrence or risk of injury, danger, or loss.
It is the extent to which a student or institution has attained their short or long term Educational goals.
Academic performance is used to assess a student’s total improvement at the end of a learning process.
1.8 Organization of the Study
This study is organized into five chapters. Chapter one included the background of the study, research problem, research objectives and questions as well as limitation of the study. Chapter two contains the literature review. Chapter three includes the methodology and study area. Chapter Four contains the results and discussion of key findings of the study. Chapter Five finally looks at the summary, conclusions, and recommendations based on the findings.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Conclusion and Recommendation
In conclusion, the results from this study have extended and called for more research regarding banditry vis-a-vis education system. Students’ poor academic performance has for some time been attributed to factors such as teacher’s ineffectiveness, poor intelligent quotient of the students, and poor mental alertness of the students among others with less or no reference to the effect of banditry of the school environment and its related factors. However, in the global search for the poor academic performance of Nigerian school students, educators and psychologists have realized that many students perform poorly in their academic work not because they do not possess the mental ability to do well but because they have been affected by other factors. Hence, this study investigated the effect of banditry of school environment on the academic performance of secondary school students in Kaduna State.
Major findings showed that banditry of the school environment significantly affects the academic performance of secondary school students while smoking of Indian hemp, hard drugs, student’s, cult, violent activities, kidnapping, armed robbery, parents confrontation of teachers, sexual harassment, rape, using of guns and bullying of junior by senior students among others are major factors that constitute banditry of the school environment. As a result of the banditry of the school environment, students become afraid of school as they feel insecure and hence they skip school, miss lessons which eventually affect them during examinations. Besides, they lose interest in school and academic activities which eventually lead to truancy and boys leaving school to take up trading while girl’s dropout and settle for marriage. It was also revealed that there is a significant difference in banditry of the school environment between schools located in urban and rural areas while banditry of the school environment has significant effect on the academic performance of male and female students.
5.3 Recommendations from the Study
Based on the findings and conclusions of the study, the researcher made the following recommendations;
- The school administration and teachers should enforce strict conflict resolution strategies in all schools to ensure that students maintain high academic performance in friendly school environment.
- All school stakeholders should create awareness positive ways so as to ensure that gender difference does not influence conflict in school in schools.
- The school administration should ensure that school’s rules and regulation are visible displayed on school notice boards and some walls and also ensure that these rules are outlined during school assemblies.
- The school community should treat every boy and girl individually to ensure that they realize their full potential and not categorized as groups in conflict in school issues.
- Teachers should encourage students to join and form different recreation clubs in schools like debate clubs, science congress and sport groups to ensure that peer orientation achieves positive influence among students.
- School community should put up measures to boost students conflict in school by instilling conflict in school in all children right from childhood.
- The government through the ministry of education should organize for more seminars and workshops in line with the new constitution and
children‟s rights to sensitize teachers and head teachers in primary schools on new measures to improve conflict in school among students.
- School administration should enforce strict conflict in school to ensure that students especially in mixed school observe school rules and regulation
- All the public secondary school stakeholders should participate in setting up schools rules and regulation so as to ensure that students embrace of the laid down rules as they will feel they possess these rules rather than being imposed on them.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What is banditry in Nigeria?
Keywords: Banditry, public safety; national security; armed robbery; kidnapping Introduction Banditry means occurrence or prevalence of armed robbery or violent crime. It involves the use of force, or threat to that effect, to intimidate a person with the intent to rob rape or kill. Banditry is a crime against persons.
What is the effect of herdsmen banditry and kidnapping in Nigeria?
For instance, in: The effect of herdsmen, banditry and kidnapping on Food Security in Nigeria According to Ofem and Bassey (2014) and Bilis (2018) recurring issue of crisis between Fulani herdsmen and farmers banditry and kidnapping in some parts of Nigeria remains one of the major threats to food security in the country.
Is public-private-partnership the answer to banditry in Nigeria?
Serious threat to Nigeria’s public safety and, by extension, national security. The paper recommends, among other things, a Public-Private-Partnership (PPP) approach to policing as a means of addressing the rising prevalence of banditry in Nigeria. Keywords: Banditry, public safety; national security; armed robbery; kidnapping
Is banditry a crime?
Banditry is a crime against persons. It has been a common genre of crime, as well as cause violence in contemporary societies (Nigeria Watch, 2011). The prevalence of banditry in Nigeria appears to have been high and rising over the years.