Effect Of Availability And Utilization Of Instructional Materials On Academic Performance Of Junior Secondary Students In Agricultural Science In Lere Local Government Area Of Kaduna State
This study was conducted to examine the role of instructional materials in teaching and learning in three Junior secondary schools in Lere LGA in Kaduna State. This study therefore, used descriptive survey to investigate the availability of instructional materials. The population for the study was 845 and sample size was 530 based on Research Advisor (2021) table of determining sample size. The data was collected through the use of AUIMQ (Role of instructional Materials Questionnaire). The data collected was analyzed using frequency and percentages. The study revealed that there were no adequate instructional materials in the schools and the few available ones are not mostly put to use because of teachers inability to operate them or their ignorance to utilize the materials. This research study found that teaching without instructional materials is ineffective and therefore teachers should try to utilize the available instructional materials for effective teachings and learning.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Purpose of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Hypotheses
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
- 1.8 Definition of Terms
- 1.9 Organization of the Study
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.1.1 The Concept of Academic Performance
- 2.1.2 Concept of Instructional Materials in Teaching and Learning
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.1 Educational Resources (Human and Material) in Teaching and Learning
- 2.2 Resources Required for Education
- 2.3 Relationship between Instructional Resources and Students Academic
- 2.4 Review of Related Empirical Studies
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample and Sampling Technique
- 3.4 Research Instruments
- 3.5 Validity of the Instruments
- 3.6 Reliability of the Instrument
- 3.7 Procedure for Data Collection
- 3.8 Data Analysis Techniques
Presentation of Data Analysis
- 4.1 Research Question 1:
- 4.3 Statistical Test of Hypotheses
- 4.4 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
The idea of using materials and equipment to enhance effectiveness in the instructional process is as old as mankind, the wise teacher will always use equipment or aids in form of instructional materials to help the learners understand and learn better. The unavailability of instructional materials in our secondary schools and the little or no use of the available ones has impacted on the performance of children at the primary level.
In the recent years, there has been discussions and debates on the falling standard of education. The blame has been shifted from one education variable to another. Teachers, parents and students share the blame, ministries of education are often to blamed from the deteriorating condition in schools. It is with this background in mind that the researchers undertook the research on accessibility and the utilization of instructional materials in Lere LGA Secondary schools.
Instructional materials are doubtlessly useful tools hence when applied effectively by a teacher help to enrich his teaching and stimulate in his student the desire to learn. Instructional materials, however do not achieve any of the attributed value on their own, their usefulness depends on what the teacher makes out of them. Intelligent handling of these materials in classroom is necessary. For effective utilization of instructional materials teachers must understand how to use and control instructional materials. Unless the classroom teacher uses these devices and directs the students attention to what they should look for, the students will not learn as much as intended form the devices.
To illustrate ideas, demonstrate abstract ideas and processes and show relationship of ideas in developing sequence requires an intelligent application of instructional materials. It is of almost importance, for the teacher to be at home with the limitation of the chosen materials so as to facilitate its effective utilization.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Students’ poor academic performances have become a concern to all stakeholders. Education stakeholders blame the teachers while the teachers on their part blame the government for failing in their responsibilities to provide adequate instructional materials to enhance students’ academic performance in Secondary Schools (Adedeji, 2002). It is also perceived that although these instructional materials are lacking in most Secondary Schools, their utility by teachers has also been questionable.
This is in variance with the National Policy on Education (FRN, 2013), where it is was categorically stated that learning experiences for children shall be made more meaningful with the provision and effective use of innovative materials in schools. These innovative materials are the broad-based instructional materials needed for teaching-learning process in the Secondary Schools. It is against this background that the researcher hopes to assess the role of instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
Generally, the study aimed at ascertaining the role of instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State. Specifically, study was to:
- Examine the extent of availability of visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State
- Ascertain the extent of availability of audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State.
- To ascertain the influence of instructional material on academic performance
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions guided the study:
- To what extent are visual instructional materials available for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA of Kaduna State?
- To what extent are Audio Instructional Materials available for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA of Kaduna State?
- What is the influence of instructional material on academic performance?
The study was guided by the following null hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance
- H01: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of teachers from Lere LGA on the extent of available visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State.
- H02: There is no significant difference in the mean ratings of teachers from Lere LGAon the extent of available audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State.
1.6 Significance of the Study
The use of instructional materials gives the learner opportunity to touch, smell or taste objects in the teaching and learning process. Consequently, knowledge passed unto the students at different levels of educational instructions should be well planned and properly allied with relevant instructional materials for clarity and comprehensibility. Hence the significance of this study to the students, teachers, curriculum planners, educational system and the society at large.
To the students, the effective use of instructional materials would enable them to effectively learn and retain what they have learnt and thereby advancing their performance in the subject in question. This is because according to Nwadinigwe (2000), learning is a process through which knowledge, skills, habits, facts, ideas and principles are acquired, retained and utilized; and the only means of achieving this is through the use of instructional materials.
The study would enhance teachers’ teaching effectiveness and productivity. Consequently a teacher who makes use of appropriate instructional materials to supplement his teaching will help enhance students’ innovative and creative thinking as well as help them become plausibly spontaneous and enthusiastic.
1.7 Scope and Limitation of the Study
The scope of this study covers extent of use of instructional materials for effective teaching and learning in junior secondary school. In the course of the study, the researcher encounters some constrain which limited the scope of the study;
a) Availability of Research Material
The research material available to the researcher is insufficient, thereby limiting the study
The time frame allocated to the study does not enhance wider coverage as the researcher has to combine other academic activities and examinations with the study.
1.8 Definition of Terms
Instructional materials are the tools used in educational lessons, which includes active learning and assessment. Basically, any resource a teacher uses to help him teach his students is an instructional material
Successful in producing a desired or intended result.
Perhaps the most significant difference between primary school and secondary school teaching is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum.
Learning is the act of acquiring new or modifying and reinforcing existing knowledge, behavior’s, skills, values, or preferences which may lead to a potential.
1.9 Organization of the Study
This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study. Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature. Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study. Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding. Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This study examined the role of instructional materials for teaching and learning in secondary schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State. The research work was guild through four research questions and three research hypotheses. All seventy-eight (530) teachers from twenty six (26) secondary schools in the study area were selected due to the small population size. The research work was guided through four research questions and three research hypotheses which form the basis the administered questionnaire. A well structured questionnaire was used is greater necessary information from the sample respondents while all information collected was subjected to frequency counts and percentage with all hypothesis tested at 0.05 level of significance using t-test statistic.
Based on the analysis of data collected from administered questionnaire, it was gathered that most of the resources for teaching and learning education subject are not available in secondary schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State. Educational resources influence the teaching and application of education subject in secondary schools.
From the result of the study, the following conclusions were made:
There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Lere LGA and Lere LGA Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State was accepted. There is no significant difference between the mean ratings of Lere LGA and Lere LGA Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of audio instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State. There is a significant influence of Lere LGA and Lere LGA Local Government Area teachers on the availability and utilization of audio-visual instructional materials for effective teaching in Junior Secondary Schools in Lere LGA, Kaduna State.
In view of the Place of Instructional Materials for Effective teaching of economics in Public Junior Secondary School, the following recommendation were made;
- The Government, public spirited individuals, non-governmental organization and companies should assist the schools through funding, donations and provision of instructional materials.
- Since instructional materials facilitate teaching outcomes, the government at all levels, should establish more educational Resource centres and information communication technology centres.
- Curriculum planners and implementation and educational policy makers should sensitize the school and teachers on the need to put more emphasis on utilization and improvision of resources materials in teaching and learning of Education subjects.
- The government as a matter of policy should recruit more qualified graduate teachers to teach at secondary school level most especially Business studies.
- Adequate instructional materials should be provided for effective teaching and learning process.
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