Effect Of Agricultural Waste And Inorganic Fertilizer On Biodegradation Rate Of Soil Polluted With Engine Oil

Project and Seminar Material for Food Science and Technology (FST)

Effect Of Agricultural Waste And Inorganic Fertilizer On Biodegradation Rate Of Soil Polluted With Engine Oil


Abstract


Pollution of the environment by petroleum products is inevitable due to oil production, transportation, and distribution activities. The present study is aimed at examining the extent of bioremediation that can be achieved in crude oil polluted soil after supplementing with organic manure (poultry droppings and goat dung); inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and saw dust respectively. A bioremediation study was carried out on soil experimentally polluted with Bonny Light crude oil by supplementation with organic and inorganic nutrients (poultry manure, goat dung, saw dust and NPK fertilizer). The efficacy of the treatments was monitored for 112days by the measurement of total hydrocarbon utilizing bacteria load and some physico-chemical parameters. The polluted soil (Control) sample had mean bacterial counts of 8.8×104, 9.0×104, 9.2×104, 9.9×104 and 7.6×104 cfu/g respectively. Sample treated with NPK fertilizer had mean bacterial counts of 4.4×104, 4.6×104, 4.7×104, 4.9×104 and 5.2×104 cfu/g on days 0,28,56,84 and 112 respectively; sample treated with poultry manure had mean bacterial counts of 1.6×104, 1.8×104, 2.0×104, 2.4×104 and 2.7×104 cfu/g on days 0, 28,56,84 and 112 respectively; the saw dust treated sample had mean bacterial counts of 2.0×104, 2.3×104, 2.7×104, 2.9×104 and 3.0×104 cfu/g on days 0,28,56,84 and 112 respectively while that treated with goat dung had mean bacterial counts of 9.3×104, 9.5×104, 9.6×104, 9.8x104and 9.9×104 cfu/g on days 0,28,56,84 and 112 respectively. There were differences in the physico-chemical analyses from the diverse samples. After statistical analysis (P0.05) there was a significant difference between the different treated samples from the control. The results suggest that nutrient supplementation would be effective in the remediation of crude oil polluted soils.

The potentials of various treatment options for the bioremediation of crude oil polluted soils seems to hold the most immediate solution especially for use in areas that would be adversely affected by physical or other removal methods. In this study, the reduction of oil in the treated samples is evident, polluted samples supplemented with fertilizer and poultry manure respectively proved to be the best options during the 112 days study period. This study shows that those organic supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus have great potentials for the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon within a reasonable time.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Crude Oil Polluted Soil, Organic Manure (poultry droppings and goat dung); Inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15), Saw dust.


Chapter one


Introduction

1.1 Background to the Study

Petroleum products remain the principal source of energy; however, despite its importance and large amounts of usage on land, petroleum products have posed global environmental pollution (Amund, 2000; Plohl et al., 2002; Chikere & Chijioke-Osuji, 2006). In the Niger Delta region of Nigeria, terrestrial and aquatic systems are the main recipients of crude oil spillage, sometimes resulting in large-scale contamination of these environments. Crude oil contamination in this area is gaining more prominence because of increased upstream and downstream activities of the petroleum industry hence increased deleterious effect on the ecology of this area (UN Report, 2001.)
The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world (Bank et al., 2003). Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is one of the world’s most common environmental problems (US EPA, 2000). Petroleum products are recalcitrant to biodegradation and persist in ecosystems because of their hydrophobic nature and low volatility as such, they create a major threat to the environment (Karthikeyah and Bhandari, 2001, Abed et al., 2002, Parrish et al, 2005, Lueprom-Chai et al., 2007;). Contaminants present in soils can enter the food chain and seriously affect animal and human health (Khan, 2005). Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) are one of the most common groups of persistent organic contaminants (Huang et al, 2005). Therefore, suitable solutions for removal or control of these soil contaminants must be found.
In the past three decades, various physical, chemical, and biological methods are suitable for decontaminating relatively small areas while they are expensive to use over large areas such as the ones contaminated by industrial substances, oil products and mining sites (Chekol et al., 2004; Escalante-Espinosa et al., 2005). For example, soil washing, vapor extraction, encapsulation, and solidification/ stabilization have been successful

These methods are expensive, and may only be partly effective and public pressures may restrict the field utilization of such intensive techniques. In the last two decades, oil spillage have given rise to increased scientific knowledge of behaviour of hydrocarbons and have led to the development of new intervention methods (Chikere and Chijioke-Osuji, 2006) such as bioremediation which have emerged as an effective technology for treatment of hydrocarbon contaminants in soil. A diverse consortium of micro-organisms is capable of degrading a wide range of hydrocarbon molecules. Recent studies on Phytoremediation process is also being used to extract, sequester and detoxify pollutants from the environment. This remediation method is environmentally friendly and visually attractive also the structure of the soil is highly maintained (U.S. EPA, 2000). Also, the use of mycelia of fungi in bioremediation termed Mycoremediation is highly effective (Singh, 2006). It explains why they have been investigated extensively since the mid-1980s for their bioremediation capabilities.

Similarly, Biodegradation is the transformation or breakdown of substances into simpler components through the biochemical reactions of microorganisms such as bacteria, yeasts and fungi although it is often limited by extremes in pH, inadequate concentration of oxygen, nutrients, and high levels of contaminants. Microorganisms involved in the degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in the environment have been found to be economic, efficient, versatile, as well as environmentally friendly (Margesin & Schinner 1999, Yakubu (2007). Most fungi are generally more tolerant to high concentrations of pollutants. However, complete biodegradation of hydrocarbon mixtures requires a bacterial consortium (Van Hamme et al, 2003). This is because each microorganism has its own specific metabolic capabilities and consequently deficiencies, when presented with a range of structurally unique substrates. The application of bacteria in bioremediation is termed Bioaugmentation; bacterial assemblies may provide a range of metabolic capabilities that cover the full spectrum of reactions required to completely degrade hydrocarbon mixtures and then utilize all of the breakdown products.

Therefore, the bacteria benefit from living in association due to synergistic and commensalistic relationships thus faster and more complete biodegradation is possible than by individual species alone. Of the many remediation methods currently in use, biostimulation is viewed as one of the most promising technologies. Biostimulation involves the use of biological process to return a polluted environment to its original state by increasing the activity of micro-organisms that can degrade the contaminants through the addition of nutrients, oxygen or other electron donors and acceptors (Obire and Anyanwu, 2009; Blaise-Chikere,C. 2012). The actual mechanism involved is biodegradation and it is mediated by about 200 microbial species representing approximately 30 genera of bacteria, yeast and even algae (Yuan et al, 2003; Jop, et al, 2008). The present study is carried out to examine the effect of application of organic manure (poultry dung, goat dung); inorganic fertilizer (NPK 15:15:15) and sawdust on crude oil contaminated soil in order to enhance its bioremediation.


1.2 Statement of Problem

The problem of environmental pollution has assumed an unprecedented proportion in many parts of the world (Bank et al., 2003). Soil contamination by petroleum hydrocarbons is one of the world’s most common environmental problems (US EPA, 2000). Petroleum products are considered to be recalcitrant to biodegradation and persist in ecosystems because of their hydrophobic nature and low volatility as such, they create a major threat to the environment (Karthikeyah and Bhandari, 2001, Abed et al., 2002, Parrish et al, 2005, Lueprom-Chai et al., 2007;). Contaminants present in soils can enter the food chain and seriously affect animal and human health (Khan, 2005).Total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) are one of the most common groups of persistent organic contaminants (Huang et al, 2005). Therefore, suitable solutions for removal or control of these soil contaminants must be found.
Hence this study seeks to analyze the activities of different micro-organism in soil degradation.


1.3 Aims and objectives

  1. To determine the activities of bacteria and fungi in biodegradation
  2. To determine the activities of physico chemical in biodegradation

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What extent does the activities of bacteria and fungi is involved in biodegradation
  2. What extent dos the activities of physico chemical is involved in biodegradation

Chapter Five


Conclusion

This study shows that those organic supplements containing nitrogen and phosphorus have great potentials for the remediation of soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbon within a reasonable time. In addition, climatic conditions play an important role in accelerating the rates of biodegradation. Treatment of polluted soil with nutrient supplements would result in bioremediation of such soils over time; that is, the use of the right types and quantities of nutrients and provision of favorable environmental conditions for the growth of the oil-eating microbes. The use of poultry manure yielded the greatest degree of bioremediation in this study; it is also a cheap method to use.


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