An Assessment Of The Effect Of Age On The Academic Performance Students In Secondary School

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An Assessment Of The Effect Of Age On The Academic Performance Students In Secondary School


Abstract


This study was carried out to examine the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State. The study was specifically set to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between age and academic performance, determine whether there is any difference in students’ academic performance with respect to their chronological ages, and ascertain whether younger students perform better than older ones in the same class. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State. In determining the sample size, the researcher conveniently selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, while the hypotheses were tested using Pearson Correlation statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant positive relationship between age and students academic achievement. Therefore age and by extension maturity is an important determinant in success in school. However, there is certainty that students performance is inline with their chronological ages. Therefore, it is recommended that the Ministry of Education should put in measures to control school entrance age of both private and public schools. This can be done through regular inspection of schools by inspectors of education.


Table of Content


  • Title Page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Table of Content
  • List of Tables
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Research Hypothesis
  • 1.6 Significance of the Study
  • 1.7 Scope of the Study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the Study
  • 1.9 Definition of Terms
  • 1.10 Organisations of the Study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the Study
  • 3.3 Sample Size Determination
  • 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of Data Collection
  • 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the Study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the Study
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions
  • 4.4 Test of Hypotheses

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References
  • APPENDIX
  • QUESTIONNAIRE

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Academic performance is a composite term that refers to both pupils’ ability and performance. It is multidimensional; it is inextricably linked to human growth and cognitive, emotional, and social physical development; it represents the whole child; it is not confined to a single event, but happens across time and levels throughout a student’s school and working life (Steinberger, 2005). Academic performance, as defined above, is the observable and quantifiable behavior of a student in a certain setting over time. For instance, a student’s academic performance in a school topic such as Economics is comprised of observable and quantifiable behavior at any point throughout or after a course of teaching. However, the amount of academic engagement at which students perform is controlled by a variety of circumstances. Mushtaq and Shabana (2012) argued that variables affecting student performance include communication, learning facilities, effective mentoring, and family stress. In other words, communication, learning facilities, and adequate supervision all have a good effect on student performance, but family stress has a detrimental effect on student performance, albeit the effect is not substantial.

Additionally, Jayanthi, Balakrishnan, Ching, Abdul Latiff, and Nasirudeen (2014) stated that characteristics such as a student’s gender, national origin, co-curricular activities, and enthusiasm in obtaining higher degrees influenced academic performance. Additionally, as compared to alternative techniques, using previous year’s test papers as a learning tool enhanced students’ academic achievements. Similarly, Vigilante, Enose, and Dorothy (2013) highlighted school levies, indiscipline, family difficulties, the kid’s entrance behavior, the girls’ lack of enthusiasm in finishing their work, certain parents’ attitudes toward the female child in comparison to the boy child, and a shortage of needed school supplies such as books as predictors of girls’ academic achievement in both day and boarding secondary schools. In a similar vein, Ahmad and Yusuf (2013) identified poverty, engagement in family chores, investments in boys’ education, early marriage, lack of adequate security, lack of child interest, parent’s death, school distance, disrespect and stubbornness expected of female students, and religious belief as some of the psychosocial variables contributing to female students’ higher dropout rates than male students. However, some of them join school later in life due to personal qualities. The issue of female students enrolling at an inappropriate age was founded on the fact that attaining puberty while still in school may raise the danger of sexual abuse and, in turn, impact female school rates. According to Jabor et al. (2011), students who are older than their peers’ average academic performance in school topics drops and continues to diminish as they age, and even older students are more likely to drop out.

In light of the foregoing, John, Jackson, and Simiyu (2015) lamented that a student’s chronological age had a significant impact on his or her academic performance, such that the youngest student had the potential to outperform the oldest on a teacher-created test. Abubakar and Adegboyega (2012) found a favorable association between age and economics academic achievement across secondary school schools. However, age was found to be insignificant in terms of students’ academic achievement, but age was found to be the greater predictor of academic achievement.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The efforts made by parents and the government in the education of high school students are aimed to guarantee that both males and females acquire the anticipated information and skills that will enable them to contribute to their own and larger communities. There is no age discrimination in the admission of students to high schools in Nigeria. This is to ensure that all students, regardless of their age, have equal educational opportunities (Jacob, 2011). Despite the fact that both parents and the government want students (male and female) to succeed academically, strong correlations between age and academic performance persist. Numerous scholars have identified these distinctions (Hanan, 2012, Lori, 2016, Epunam, 2011, and Balakrishnan, 2015). Thus, researchers must continue to focus their attention on the impact of age on academic performance. As such, this research will examine the relationship between age and academic performance among secondary school students.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The overall aim of this study is to critically examine the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school. Hence, the study will be channeled to the following specific objectives;

  1. Ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between age and academic performance.
  2. Determine whether there is any difference in students’ academic performance with respect to their chronological ages.
  3. Ascertain whether younger students perform better than older ones in the same class.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. Is there a significant relationship between age and academic performance?
  2. Is there a difference in students’ academic performance with respect to their chronological ages?
  3. Does younger students perform better than older ones in the same class?

1.5 Research Hypotheses

The following statements will be validated in the course of this study;

  • H0: There is no significant relationship between age and academic performance.
  • Ha: There is a significant relationship between age and academic performance.

1.6 Significance of the Study

This study seeks to make findings into age as cause of the poor performance of students in schools given the huge financial investment by the various stakeholders.

Other researchers have worked on cognitive ability development and factors affecting it but little if any has been done on impact of age. Considering the fact that children at time resume nursery schools at age one. The findings become road map to making useful recommendations and arriving at tentative factual statements.

Additionally, subsequent researchers will use it as literature review. This means that, other students who may decide to conduct studies in this area will have the opportunity to use this study as available literature that can be subjected to critical review. Invariably, the result of the study contributes immensely to the body of academic knowledge with regards to the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school.


1.7 Scope of the Study

This study is structured to generally assess the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school. However, the study will further ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between age and academic performance, determine whether there is any difference in students’ academic performance with respect to their chronological ages, and ascertain whether younger students perform better than older ones in the same class.

The study will be delimited to some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State.


1.8 Limitation of the Study

In the course of carrying out this study, the researcher experienced some constraints, which included time constraints, financial constraints, and the attitude of the respondents. However, the researcher were able to manage these just to ensure the success of this study.


1.9 Definition of Terms

Academic Performance:

The cognitive ability of students in terms of passing performing well in continuous assessment / terminal examination.

Age:

This is a measure of how old a student is.


1.10 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows.

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:

5.1 Introduction

This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.


5.2 Summary of the Study

In this study, our focus was to examine the effect of age on the academic performance students in secondary school in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State. The study is was specifically set to ascertain whether there is a significant relationship between age and academic performance, determine whether there is any difference in students’ academic performance with respect to their chronological ages, and ascertain whether younger students perform better than older ones in the same class.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants, where all respondent are teachers and students of some selected secondary schools in Southern Ijaw Local Government Area Of Bayelsa State.


5.3 Conclusions

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion:

There is a significant positive relationship between age and students academic achievement. Therefore age and by extension maturity is an important determinant in success in school. However, there is certainty that students performance is inline with their chronological ages.


5.4 Recommendations

Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.

  1. The Ministry of Education should put in measures to control school entrance age of both private and public schools. This can be done through regular inspection of schools by inspectors of education.
  2. The minimum age for registering pupils for First School Leaving Certificate and Common Entrance Examinations should be 11 years which is the minimum age for class six pupils.
  3. Parents need to be educated on the need to respect school entry age and head teachers should be sanctioned for not implementing the policy regarding school entry age.

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Frequently Asked Questions


Is there a positive impact of age on academic performance?

Hi: The Alternative Hypothesis: There is positive impact of age on academic performance This study seeks to make findings into the poor performance of students in schools given the huge financial investment by the various stakeholders.

What is the relative age effect in education?

The policy of school organisation for grouping students in the same academic year is based on date of birth. The differences in the experiences and maturation of older students involve a relatively better performance in academic settings, which is known as the relative age effect (RAE).

What are the factors affecting academic performance?

The factors affecting academic performance are gender, age, schooling, father/guardian social economic status, residential area, medium of schooling, tuition trend, daily study hours and accommodation trend are the factors affecting academic performance.

What is the difference between academic performance and impact?

The academic performances were studied using the students and of term results and or and of year results. Academic Performance: The cognitive ability of students in terms of passing performing well in continuous assessment / terminal examination. Impact: Effect which is exerted on something by some other agent. 

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