Effect Of Adolescents’ Perception And Awareness Of HIV / AIDS On Sexual Behaviour
This study was carried out on the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour using some selected senior secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprise of students and teachers of the selected secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 200 respondents and 150 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables. While the hypotheses were tested using chi-square statistical tool. The result of the findings reveals that there is a significant effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/IDS infection. The study also revealed that the extent of students’ exposure to information will affect their perception towards HIV/AIDS.. And there is a significant gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS infection. Therefore, it is recommended that the education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.
Table of Content
- 1.1 Background of the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Objective of the Study
- 1.4 Research Questions
- 1.5 Research Hypothesis
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope of the Study
- 1.8 Limitation of the Study
- 1.9 Definition of Terms
- 1.10 Organisations of the Study
Review of Literature
- 2.1 Conceptual Framework
- 2.2 Theoretical Framework
- 2.3 Empirical Review
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population of the Study
- 3.3 Sample Size Determination
- 3.4 Sample Size Selection Technique and Procedure
- 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
- 3.6 Method of Data Collection
- 3.7 Method of Data Analysis
- 3.8 Validity of the Study
- 3.9 Reliability of the Study
- 3.10 Ethical Consideration
Data Presentation and Analysis
- 4.1 Data Presentation
- 4.2 Analysis of Data
- 4.3 Answering Research Questions
- 4.4 Test of Hypotheses
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendation
1.1 Background to the Study
The topic of human sexuality is inter-disciplinary in nature. It covers all aspects of becoming and being a sexual, gendered person and includes biological, psychological, social, economic and cultural perspectives. The impact of the HIV/AIDS pandemic in the country as well as the urgent need to stop its spread, caused a desperate search for a programme of education that will target the scourge. This according to Adara (2002), ushered in the new paradigm on adolescent reproductive health education in which the adolescent is given the opportunities to develop a perspective on sexual health that includes appreciation of self and others or opportunities to express desires and feelings in a healthy context (Anyikwa, 2002).
The Resolutions and Programmes of Action of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) made it imperative that adolescent reproductive health issues among other issues of human population should take centre stage in schools. Moreover, recent scourge of HIV/AIDS in Nigeria brought about the urgent need to deal with adolescent reproductive health issues without further delay. In 1998, for instance, 60% of all reported cases of HIV/AIDS came from the age group 15 – 24 years (NERDC, 2001). Thus, concepts of Sexuality Education (SE) were accepted as critical to helping young people with the acquisition of adequate knowledge, skills and responsible behaviours in order to prevent and reduce Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) including the dreaded HIV/AIDS.
Adolescence is a critical period when young people are undergoing many physical changes and adjusting to their changing bodies and emotions. They want to make some sense of their confused state. They need information about what is happening to them through adequate knowledge about sex and its consequences. Studies show that adolescent’s pregnancy and early marriage are major causes of school dropouts in the country. Adolescents are also more vulnerable to HIV infection due mostly to indiscriminate and unprotected sex. Young people need sexuality education programmes that model and teach positive selfworth. They need to receive clear, accurate and protective messages about sexual decision making, healthy relationships and healthy sexuality. Sexuality is more than just “sex”, it is about biology, gender roles, body image, value, beliefs, attitudes, sexual behaviour, interpersonal relationships, decision making and communication and so on (Awoyin, 2005).
According to Adekoya (2005), secondary school students are mainly adolescents. Adolescence is a critical period, which determines their reproductive health for life. At this period, many of them have become sexually active and they lack adequate information on the consequences of unprotected sex. They are very vulnerable to STI’s and HIV infections and their sexual and reproductive behaviour are guided by the misconceptions and fears of physical, social and mental changes they undergo as well as relationship problems. Thus, it is suggested that relevant curricula content should be reviewed to reflect emerging societal issues like adolescent reproductive health issues and key concepts in sexuality education like: human development; relationships personal skills; sexual behaviour; sexual health, society and culture as well as other skills and knowledge that serve learners as they continue to face choices and situations in the real world (Humphrey, 1990).
With the establishment of counselling in schools, adolescents in all strata, are now very much aware of causes and effect of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. Due to creation of enlightenment on important issues, adolescents no longer show negative attitudes towards counseling and other enlightenment strategies, rather, they embrace it knowing that the school uses it as an instrument of assistance and remedy to the problem of individuals. For example the knowledge of the dangers of HIV/AIDS which counselling has brought to many adolescents, has made them to be careful and mindful of their sexual activities bearing in mind that through sex HIV/AIDS could be contacted (Apata, 2003).
Not only through counseling, HIV/AIDS awareness to adolescents can be created through other means like the radio, television, newspapers, magazines and other sources of information communication technology (ICT). Through these media, adolescents are now at the disposal of information concerning the causes and effects of HIV/AIDS endemic disease. With these information at the disposal of the adolescents in school, they come in contact with necessary information on how to avoid the contact of the dreaded disease that has become thorn in the flesh of the government and private organizations (Uzor, 2000). With adequate information, awareness is created on how to abstain from sexual contact with the opposite sex, or at worst how to use condom in the absence of abstinence. This information dissemination has prevented the contact and spread of HIV/AIDS by the youths in Lagos State schools and outside of it.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Sexually transmitted diseases such as Acquired Immuno-deficiency Syndrome (AIDs) has defied all aspects of remedy through medical sciences. The spread of the disease is very alarming in the larger society.
Regrettably, people who have been counselled by experts in counselling and through other enlightenment means have not heeded to the advice given to them on how best to embark on safe sexual relationship. This is because, many people today especially adolescents, have not changed their sexual behaviour. Majority of the students, inspite of the information given to them on the dangers inherent in contacting HIV/AIDS, still believe that sex cannot give them HIV/AIDS. Others believe that whether being aware of the danger or not, they should engage in active sexual life and this is where the problem of continued spread of HIV/AIDS among students lies. Many people show negative attitude towards the use of counselling and other means, as an instrument of assistance for social, psychological and health problems. People who have contacted HIV/AIDS infections rather have the problem of inhibition, fear and the negative mental orientation that make their cases worse and eventually result to their death.
Negative attitude to sex education and marital guidance by many people are the main causes of the wide spread of HIV/AIDS in the society. This study therefore investigates the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour in Lagos State secondary schools.
1.3 Purpose of the Study
The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of students’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State and other enlightenment strategies be used to effect positive behaviour change towards sex related matters by adolescent students.
1.4 Research Questions
The following research questions will be raised in this study:
- Will there be any significant effect of counselling on the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS?
- To what extent will students’ exposure to information affect their perception towards HIV/AIDS?
- 3. Will there be any gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS due to information dissemination?
- Is there any difference between the perception of students who are exposed to awareness of the effect of HIV/AIDS?
- How can we differentiate between students who have positive attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection and those who have negative attitudes towards HIV/AIDS infection?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
The following hypotheses will be formulated to guide the conduct of this study:
- There is no significant effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/IDS infection.
- There is no significant gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS infection.
- There is no significant difference between the students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and those who have negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.
- There is no significant relationship between sex education and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.
1.6 Significance of Study
This study will be of immense benefit to the following:
Students will benefit from this study because its findings and recommendations will give them an insight into the problem of HIV/AIDS and how to prevent the spread.
This study will serve as a reminder on the importance of giving sex education to their children at an early age before they engage in heterosexual relationship.
Teachers will also benefit from this study because it will afford them the opportunity to use counselling method to help students. With this study teachers would appreciate the use of counselling and teaching as a remedy to the spread of HIV/AIDS.
4. School Counsellors:
Counsellors would benefit from recommendations of this study because it will help them to have more insight into the use of counselling to help students out of their sexual problems.
5. The Society:
The society will be aware of the dangers of being infected with HIV/AIDS. This will enable the public to develop a cautious attitude towards HIV/AIDS.
1.7 Scope of the Study
The study will cover the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in Surulere local government area of Lagos State.
1.8 Limitation of the Study
Like in every human endeavour, the researcher encountered slight constraints while carrying out the study. Insufficient funds tend to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature, or information and in the process of data collection, which is why the researcher resorted to a limited choice of sample size. More so, the researcher simultaneously engaged in this study with other academic work. As a result, the amount of time spent on research will be reduced.
Moreover, the case study method utilized in the study posed some challenges to the investigator including the possibility of biases and poor judgment of issues. However, the investigator relied on respect for the general principles of procedures, justice, fairness, objectivity in observation and recording, and weighing of evidence to overcome the challenges.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Operational definition of terms were carried out in this study thus:
This is a term that means Human Immuno Deficiency.
This means Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.
3. School Counsellors:
School counsellors are counselling experts who are in the school environment in order to offer counselling and guidance services to students and others (Amanze, 1990).
According to Advanced Learners Dictionary, this means technical or mechanical skill in art, something of method of doing something expertly, method of artistic expression in music painting etc.
This refers to manner of placing or holding the body, way of feeling, thinking or behaving.
This means grammatically grouping of words (norms and pronouns into classes (masculine, genuine and neutral).
Infecting or being infected; contacting a disease, especially by agency of the atmosphere or water, contagious disease, influence that infects.
1.10 Organisations of the Study
The study is categorized into five chapters. The first chapter presents the background of the study, statement of the problem, objective of the study, research questions and hypothesis, the significance of the study, scope/limitations of the study, and definition of terms. The chapter two covers the review of literature with emphasis on conceptual framework, theoretical framework, and empirical review. Likewise, the chapter three which is the research methodology, specifically covers the research design, population of the study, sample size determination, sample size, abnd selection technique and procedure, research instrument and administration, method of data collection, method of data analysis, validity and reliability of the study, and ethical consideration. The second to last chapter being the chapter four presents the data presentation and analysis, while the last chapter(chapter five) contains the summary, conclusion and recommendation.
Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations:
This chapter summarizes the findings on the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour using some selected senior secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State as a case study. The chapter consists of summary of the study, conclusions, and recommendations.
5.2 Summary of the Study
In this study, our focus was on the effect of adolescents’ perception and awareness of HIV/AIDS on sexual behaviour using some selected senior secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State as a case study.The study is was specifically set to examine the effect of students’ perception and awareness towards HIV/AIDS infection in selected secondary schools in Surulere local government area of Lagos State and other enlightenment strategies be used to effect positive behaviour change towards sex related matters by adolescent students.
The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 150 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent arestudents and teachers of the selected secondary schoolsin Surulere local government area of Lagos State.
Based on the findings of this study, the researcher made the following conclusion.
- There is a significant effect of counselling on students’ perception towards HIV/IDS infection.
- The extent of students’ exposure to information will affect their perception towards HIV/AIDS.
- There is a significant gender difference in the perception of students towards HIV/AIDS infection.
- There is a significant difference between the students who have positive perception towards HIV/AIDS and those who have negative perception towards HIV/AIDS infection.
- There is a significant relationship between sex education and students’ attitude towards HIV/AIDS infection.
Based on the findings of the study, the following recommendations are proffered.
- The education curriculum developers should introduce extra-curricular activities in schools that would promote sexuality health knowledge in schools from that of the formal classroom experiences.
- School managements of secondary schools should periodically invite guest lecturers to give health talks to students outside the normal student learning process so as to increase the knowledge of sexuality health.
- Nollywood film producers and film writers should write and produce films and short plays on risky sexual behaviours and its effect to help sensitize the nation television viewers on risky sexual behaviours.
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