The Effect Of Admixtures On Properties Of Concrete: Case Studies Of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groundnut Shell Ash, And Lime Stone Powder

Project and Seminar Materials for Civil Engineering CE

The Effect Of Admixtures On Properties Of Concrete: Case Studies Of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groundnut Shell Ash, And Lime Stone Powder


Abstract


The project titled “The effect of admixtures on properties of concrete: case study of sugar, cow bone ash, groundnut shell ash, and lime stone powder” was carried out with the aim of knowing the effect the of the various types of admixtures used on the properties of concrete, in term of the workability of concrete, durability of concrete and the concrete strength.

The material used are cow bone ash, groundnut shell ash, sugar and lime stone powder. The cow bone was sourced along Sobi road, Akerebiata area, Ilorin East local government area and the groundnut shell was sourced from Oja-Oba, Ilorin west local government. The cow bone was sun –dried after careful separation from flesh, tissues and fats, the ash was carried out by incinerating the bone at a temperature of 900⁰C in a furnace. Also the groundnut shell ash was obtained by burning groundnut shell on an iron sheet in the open air under normal temperature while sugar and lime stone powder were bought from market (chemical store) along Taiwo road, Ilorin Kwara state. The method adopted was; batching of concrete materials, mixing of concrete materials, production of cubes, curing of cubes (for 14days and 28days) while the test carried out during and after the concrete cubes are produced or casted are; sieve analysis test, slump test and compressive strength test.

From the sieve analysis test carried out on both fine and coarse aggregates, it was discovered that the coefficient of uniformity (Cu) obtained are less than 4, hence they are both “well-graded” aggregates. The slump test shows that there is increase in the slump value from sugar-concrete, GSA-concrete, CBA-concrete and LP-concrete, likewise the compressive strength test increases from sugar-concrete, GSA-concrete, CBA-concrete and LP-concrete.

Based on the result of this investigation, the conclusion I made was that admixtures affect properties of concrete like its slump value, density, compressive strength, etc and that admixtures generally decreases the slump value of concrete which in turns decrease the workability of the concrete. I there by recommend that further research should be carried out using 20%-50% of LP, CBA and GSA as admixture at an interval of 10% for the same experiment. Also the experiment should be carried out using some other mix ratio like 1:3:6, 1:4:8 and soon.


Table of Contents


  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of Contents
  • List of Tables
  • List of Figures
  • List of Plates

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.2 Aims and Objectives of the Study
  • 1.3 Justification of the Study
  • 1.4 Scope of the Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Concrete in Practice
  • 2.2 Types of Admixtures
  • 2.3 Selected Agent
  • 2.4 Material for concrete
  • 2.4.1 Aggregates
  • 2.4.2 Cement
  • 2.4.2.1 Physical Properties of Cement
  • 2.4.3 Water
  • 2.4.3.1 Quality of Water
  • 2.4.3.2 Properties of Water
  • 2.4.4 Curing

Chapter Three

3.0 Project Methodology

  • 3.1 Procurement of Material
  • 3.2 Preparation of Material
  • 3.3 Material Used
  • 3.4 Batching of concrete
  • 3.5 Mixing of Concrete
  • 3.6 Tests
  • 3.6.1 Sieve Analysis Test
  • 3.6.2 Slump Test
  • 3.7 Production of Cubes
  • 3.8 Curing of Cubes
  • 3.9 Compressive Strength Test on Concrete Cubes
  • 3.9.1 Procedure for Compressive Strength Test

Chapter Four

4.0 Results Analysis

  • 4.1 Sieve Analysis Test Result
  • 4.2 Slump Test Result
  • 4.3 Discussion on the Result

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • Reference

List of Tables


  • Table 4.1: Data Analysis for Fine Aggregates (Sand)
  • Table 4.2: Data Analysis for Coarse Aggregate (Granite)
  • Table 4.3: Slump Test Result for GSA Concrete
  • Table 4.4: Slump Test Result for CBA Concrete
  • Table 4.5: Slump Test Result for Sugar Concrete
  • Table 4.6: Slump Test Result for LP Concrete
  • Table 4.7: Summary of Slump Test Result for Various Concrete Admixtures
  • Table 4.8: Compressive Strength Test Result of Normal Concrete
  • Table 4.9: Compressive Strength Test Result of 5% Cow Bone Ash Concrete
  • Table 4.10: Compressive Strength Test Result of 10% Cow Bone Ash Concrete
  • Table 4.11: Compressive Strength Test Result of 15% Cow Bone Ash Concrete
  • Table 4.12: Compressive Strength Test Result of 5% Sugar Concrete
  • Table 4.13: Compressive Strength Test Result of 10% Sugar Concrete
  • Table 4.14: Compressive Strength Test Result of 5% Groundnut Shell Ash
  • Table 4.15: Compressive Strength Test Result Of 10% Groundnut Shell Ash
  • Table 4.16: Compressive Strength Test Result of 15% Groundnut Shell Ash
  • Table 4.17: Compressive Strength Test Result of 5% Limestone Powder
  • Table 4.18: Compressive Strength Test Result of 10% Limestone Powder
  • Table 4.19: Compressive Strength Test Result of 15% Limestone Powder
  • Tables 4.20: Summary Table for the Compressive Strength of Cube

List of Figures


  • Figure 4.1: The graph of sieve analysis for Fine Aggregate (Sand)
  • Figure 4.2: The graph of sieve analysis for Coarse Aggregate (Granite).
  • Figure 4.3: The graph of slump test result for GSA Concrete
  • Figure 4.4: The graph of slump test result for CBA Concrete
  • Figure 4.5: The graph of slump test result for SUGAR Concrete
  • Figure 4.6: The graph of slump test result for LP Concrete
  • Figure 4.7: The graph for summary of slump test result for various Concrete Admixtures
  • Figure 4.8: The Average compressive strength of CBA-concrete at various percentages for 14 and 28days of curing.
  • Figure 4.9: The Average compressive strength of Sugar concrete at various percentages for 14 and 28days of curing.
  • Figure 4.10: The Average compressive strength of GSA-concrete at various percentages for 14 and 28days of curing.
  • Figure 4.11: The Average compressive strength of LP-concrete at various percentages for 14 and 28days of curing.
  • Figure 4.12: The summary of Average compressive strength for various Admixture concretes at various percentages for 14 and 28days of curing.

List of Plates


  • Plate 3.1: Groundnut Shell and Cow Bone
  • Plate 3.2: Burning of Groundnut Shell and Cow Bone
  • Plate 3.3: Cow bone ash, Groundnut shell ash, Limestone powder and Sugar.
  • Plate 3.4: Batching of Concrete
  • Plate 3.5: Type of Slump
  • Plate 36: Cube Production
  • Plate 3.7: Curing of Cubes
  • Plate 3.8: Crushing Machine

Chapter One


1.0. Introduction

The importance of understanding various types of materials used in Civil Engineering is widely recognized. There has been tremendous increase in the latest research and practical achievement to improve on concrete technology. Free exchange for technical knowledge at international conferences in many countries and worldwide exchange of technical paper, upgrading of internet information on how concrete can be improved in a situation where needed and bulletins has led to a general polling and shifting of information and recently to the publication of many new code and standard. Concrete is a composite material which is formed by mixing in good proportion, cement, water, fine aggregate and coarse aggregate, air and at times admixture. Freshly prepared concrete is called Wet or Green concrete. Concrete is used in substructure and superstructure work in civil engineering, for a meaningful work to take place in a construction industry, concrete must be available. However, the properties and performance of this concrete are being influenced by the introduction of some materials called admixture. Admixtures have been in use almost since the inception of the art of concreting. It is reported that the roman builders used oxblood as an admixture in their concrete and masonry structure. Research has shown that oxblood is an excellent air entraining agent. During the early part of this century it was a common practice to add gold dust, soap to concrete as water proofing agent. Admixtures are materials other than water, cement, aggregate and additives like pozzolana or slag and fibre reinforcement, used as an ingredient of concrete or mortar and added to the immediately before or during its mixing to modify or alter one or more properties of the concrete in the plastic or hardened state.

Admixtures can also be said to be substances introduced into concrete mixes in order to alter or improve the property of the fresh or hindered concrete or both in general.

Admixtures are classified as either mineral admixture which may be introduced as blended materials such as fly-ash (FA), silicate fume (SF), ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS), meta kaolin (MK), and rice husk ash (RHA) or chemical admixture which are typically added during the mixing process of concrete production, its include accelerators, retarders, air entrainer, plasticizer or water reducer, water proofers and pigments (colourants).
In view of the above facts the project title “the effect of admixtures on the properties of concrete” is carried out with the aim of knowing the effect of the various types of admixture used on the properties of concrete, in term of the workability of concrete, setting time of concrete, durability of concrete and the concrete strength. The test also compared the effect of various admixtures on the setting to the hardening time of concrete as well as the slump and trowel test to know the degree of workability.

The test is limited to selected admixtures as a result of time factor, likewise the properties of concrete on which the test are based are limited but the most important and most interesting area are selected such as limestone powder(LP), sugar, groundnut shell ash(GSA) and cow bone ash(CBA).


1.1. Statement of the Problem

Not all admixtures are economical to employ on a particular project. Also some characteristic of concrete, such as low absorption, can be achieved simply by consistently adhering to high quality concreting practices.

The chemistry of concrete admixture is a complex topic requiring in depth knowledge and experience. A general understanding of the options available for concrete admixture is necessary for acquiring the right product for the project base on the climatic condition and project requirement.


1.2. Aim and Objectives of the Study

The aim of this project is to determine the effects of limestone powder(LP),sugar, groundnut shell ash(GSA)and cow bone ash(CBA) admixtures on the properties of concrete.

The objectives of the study are alighted below:

  1. To know how admixtures affect concrete in term of its workability, setting time, durability and strength.
  2. To enable one to know the cost of using the various admixtures.
  3. To be able to compare concrete with admixture and concrete without admixture in term of their strength, workability.

1.3. Justification Of the Study

Admixture has been in use for a very long time, such as calcium chloride to provide a cold-weather setting concrete. Others are more recent and represent an area of expanding possibilities for increased performance. These types of admixtures are available in two forms, which are mineral or chemical admixture. Admixture like fly-ash, silicate fume, slag comes in category of mineral admixture, while chemical admixtures are super plasticizers, accelerator, water reducer, retarder and air entrainer. Admixtures are used to modify the properties of concrete such as to improve workability, curing temperature range, setting time, increase strength, retard or accelerate strength development, reduce segregation, decrease or reduce permeability, increase bond of concrete to steel reinforcement, increase durability or resistance to severe condition of exposure. Generally, an admixture will affect more than one properties of concrete and its effect on all the properties of the concrete must therefore be considered. Admixture may increase or decrease the cost of concrete by reducing cement quantity required for a given strength changing the volume of the mixture, or reducing the cost of concrete placing and handling operations. Control of setting time of concrete may result in decreasing waiting time, repetition in the preparation of concrete in a large construction and therefore eliminating construction joint.


1.4. Scope of the Study

The scope and limitation of this project is basically the effect of admixture on the properties of concrete. In view of the above facts, the extent at which some of the admixture hamper or enhances the properties of concrete is a motivating factor on this project. In this project limestone powder(LP), sugar, groundnut shell ash(GSA), cow bone ash(CBA) will be considered. The first three are retarding admixtures and consistency test of cement such as sieve analysis, slump, and compressive strength etc. would be carried out on the samples.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

Based on the results of this investigation, the following conclusion is drawn;

Admixtures affect properties of concrete like its slump value, density, compressive strength, etc.

Admixtures generally decrease the slump value of concrete which in turns decrease the workability of the concrete, since normal concrete(0% concrete) has a slump value of between 55-60mm while concrete with admixture has slump value lesser than that of normal concrete.

LP-concrete has higher slump value(52,48 and 44mm for 5,10 and 15% respectively), followed by CBA-concrete(50,46 and 41mm for 5,10 and 15% respectively) and GSA-concrete(45,42 and 38mm for 5,10 and 15% respectively) while Sugar-concrete has the least slump value(30,26 and 22mm for 5,10 and 15% respectively).

Generally, concrete slump value is used to find the workability, which indicates water-cement ratio i.e, the ease at which the wet concrete flow / spread across the formwork. LP-concrete has more workability than others (CBA-concrete > GSA-concrete) while Sugar-concrete has a lesser workability compare to others.

LP-concrete and CBA-concrete has higher compressive strength, followed by GSA-concrete while Sugar-concrete has the least compressive strength.


5.2 Recommendation

From the analysis of the results obtained, I thereby recommend that; Since it is ascertained that the slump test exhibits a true slump for LP-concrete, CBA-concrete and GSA-concrete and since they also have high compressive strength; therefore it’s within specification and they can be used for concrete involving light weight aggregate for construction. Except that of Sugar-concrete ,has it does not have a better workability and compressive strength.
Further research should be carried out using 20% – 50% of LP, CBA and GSA as admixture at an interval of 10% for the same experiment.

Further research should be carried out on sugar as an admixture in concrete with decrease in percentage of sugar added say 1.0% – 2.0% at an interval of 0.2% and compare their strength with that of the earlier result obtained(i.e to that of 5,10 and 15%).

Number of curing days should be increase from 28days to at least 56days to ensure continuity.

Further research should be carried out on the same investigation using admixture like sugar cane ash, wood ash, rice husk ash, etc.

The experiment should also be carried out using some other mix ratio like 1:3:6, 1:4:8 and so on.


The Effect Of Admixtures On Properties Of Concrete: Case Studies Of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groundnut Shell Ash, And Lime Stone Powder


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The Effect Of Admixtures On Properties Of Concrete: Case Studies Of Sugar, Cow Bone Ash, Groundnut Shell Ash, And Lime Stone Powder


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