The Economics Of Developing Reservoir Aquaculture In Nigeria

Project and Seminar Material for Fishery and Aquaculture

The Economics Of Developing Reservoir Aquaculture In Nigeria


Abstract


The setting up of Reservoir Aquaculture via concrete ponds fish farm in a full plot of land with N10,000,000 capital needed as cash on interest free loan basis payable in five (5) years period with the sole aim of making profit was projected. The management was based on polyculture of catfishes (Clarian gariepinus). Data for the study was collected through face to face interview and the use of checklist from the 22nd of May to 27th of July, 2019. Based on financial analysis an interest free loan of N10,000000 was required, payable within a period of 5years, a good return on investment was realized. In addition, the state government was encouraged to empower the populace to engage in aquaculture fish production system. Government fish farms that are no longer operational were recommended for privatization and or commercialization on revival for the provision of more employment, income generation and poverty reduction, especially among the internally displaced person (IDP) in Nigeria.

 


Table of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title Page
  • Declaration
  • Approval
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table Of Content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of The Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Research Questions
  • 1.5 Hypotheses
  • 1.6 Significance Of The Study
  • 1.7 Scope/Limitations Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Challenges And Prospects Of Aquaculture Farmers
  • 2.3 Economic Impacts Of Aquaculture Farming

Chapter Three

3.0 Methodology

  • 3.1 Study Area
  • 3.2 Instrument For Data Collection
  • 3.3 Sampling
  • 3.4 Data Analysis
  • 3.5 Model Specification

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion

  • 4.1 Results

Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background To The Study

Reservoirs are rarely and or never created for fishery purposes. However, the secondary use of the impounded waters for fisheries is becoming an increasingly important activity, particularly in Nigeria, the region that is purported to have the highest reservoir acreage amongst all continents. Reservoir fish production is also gradually becoming a significant contributor to total inland production, and often provides a relatively affordable source of fresh and good quality animal protein source to many rural communities, as well many livelihood opportunities directly and indirectly (Petr, 2007). According to Chabjinda (1996), reservoir aquaculture activities in the recent past are also seen as a means of providing alternate livelihood opportunities to people that are displaced by the impoundment. Such livelihoods could entail engagement in capture fisheries and or aquaculture activities such as cage culture. In addition, nations are beginning to take note of the vast reservoir resources that are of a non-perennial nature inthe West Africasub-region for development of culture based fisheries.

This development, a low cost community activity, is thought to provide significant subsidiary income to downstream farmers and contribute to their nutrition. Notably in the region the reservoir fisheries production and management methods, amongst others factors differ widely. The differences in fish yield between reservoirs and/or between countries cannot be easily understood and are unlikely to be determined by individual parameters or characteristics such as the reservoir fish fauna, water quality criteria, hydrological regimes, morphometry, management patterns and so forth (Benchakarn, 2002).

However, it is possible that there is a great deal to be learnt from management practices of each country. In view of the increasing importance of reservoir fisheries in the region it was considered appropriate to take stock of the current status thereof, with a view to utilizing this knowledge to develop and or evolve appropriate national and or regional strategies for sustained development of reservoirs fisheries. Reservoirs that are developed for the purpose of aquaculture are usually divided into three categories, viz. valley type, branch type and plain type, according to the geographic characters of the locations (Hogan, 2004). The valley type is normally constructed in the upper reaches of the river at a high altitude. It often has a high current velocity, high turbidity and a short water retention period, and is mainly used for hydropower generation. The branch type of reservoir is located in hilly areas. It is characterized by a large number of islands and coves inside the reservoir.

The plains type of reservoir is usually constructed in the plain areas at low altitudes. It features relatively shallow water and broad basins with an extensive water surface (Hogan, 2004). The valley type reservoirs have very limited potential for fisheries development mainly due to the high current velocity, high turbidity and short water retention period. Branch and plain type reservoirs are usually built in the middle and lower reaches of rivers at the low altitudes and the environmental conditions of these reservoirs are more or less stable. Also, they are biologically productive. As such, these reservoirs are suitable for fisheries development.

The availability of natural food organisms in reservoirs is the most important basis for fisheries production. Planktonic organisms are the most dominant food organisms in all reservoirs. In many reservoirs, phytoplankton abundance usually ranges between 5-10 mg-1. Nigeria has a long tradition in managing inland fisheries. In newly constructed reservoirs, fisheries activities usually start immediately after the storage of water. Fisheries development in new reservoirs is also considered to be an effective way to provide new livelihoods to the people displaced during the construction of a reservoir. The economic activities associated with reservoirs include hydropower generation, forestry, fisheries and more recently tourism. This study is examining how Nigeria can key into the reservoir fisheries method considering the economic implications.


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Fisheries management practices and their effectiveness differ from one geographical zone to another. All these will result in differences in production level and as such, it is rather difficult to have a clear understanding on the production level of different types of reservoirs and to know its applicability in Nigeria. Some well managed reservoir of moderate size and conducive environmental Reservoir Fisheries in countries where it has been practiced effectively like China leads to conditions where production is as high as 2 tonnes/ha of fish. Undoubtedly, increased reservoir fisheries production in Nigeria will contribute significantly to national fish production. However, the exact overall contribution of reservoir fisheries in general to the total fish production is not known.


1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The following are the objectives of this study:

  1. To examine the process of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria.
  2. To examine the economics of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria.
  3. To identify the limitations of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What is the process of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria?
  2. What is the economics of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria?
  3. What are the limitations of reservoir aquaculture in Nigeria?

1.6 Significance Of The Study

The following are the significance of this study:

  1. The outcome of this study will educate on the process and limitations of reservoir aquaculture development in Nigeria with emphasis on its economic implications.
  2. This research will be a contribution to the body of literature in the area of the effect of personality trait on student’s academic performance, thereby constituting the empirical literature for future research in the subject area

1.7 Scope / Limitations Of The Study

This study will cover the process of reservoir aquaculture development and its economic implication in terms of construction and profitability.

Limitation Of Study
Financial constraint

Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).

Time constraint

The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

As projected, the project has shown to be viable. Government and finance houses are therefore encouraged to support aquaculture production system aggressively for youth empowerments, poverty reduction, rural development and economic growth. Although the projected work was on the basis of interest free loan, however banks should be encouraged to charge low interest rate where inevitably applicable, especially commercial banks so that the venture would be more lucrative [9, 10].


5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations are made:

  1. Government farms should be made to be productive and as well run as a profitable venture and those farms that failed should be revived or privatized so that such farms could be used in poverty reduction.
  2. Government should make effort to ensure that aquaculture production system inputs are easily accessible to farmers at affordable rate.
  3. Government should set up fish feed mill, hatcheries, fish processing, preservation and packaging industries in the state.
  4. Responsible authorities should ensure that consultancy and extension services should be within the easy reach of the fish farmers.
  5. Government and other non-governmental organizations should prioritize skill acquisition program in fish farming backed up with capital support and other material requirements for smooth operation and subsequent expansion.

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