Economic Instability As A Determinant Of Senior Secondary School Teachers’ Productivity In Ilorin, Kwara State
This project work investigated the economic instability as a determinant of senior of secondary school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State. The total of two hundred (200) respondents were randomly selected. A structure questionnaire was used to collect data from the respondents. The frequency and percentage was used to analyse the socio-demographic data of the teachers and t-test as well as analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the hypotheses. The findings of the study revealed that economic instability has led to fluctuation in the macro economic variables whereby the majority of senior secondary school teachers had negative impact on their productivity. It also revealed that there is significant difference in influence of economic instability on male and female teachers’ productivity because male teachers felt the impact on their productivity than their female counterparts in terms of provision of all the essential needs for the family. All these and many more deprived most teachers of having enough time to prepare for class teaching.
Table of Contents
- Title page
- Table of contents
- 1.1 Background to the Study
- 1.2 Statement of the Problem
- 1.3 Research Questions
- 1.4 Research Hypotheses
- 1.5 Purpose of the Study
- 1.6 Significance of the Study
- 1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
- 1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
Review of Related Literature
- 2.1 Scope and Nature of Economic Education
- 2.2 Teaching and Importance of Teacher
- 2.3 Concept of Economic Instability
- 2.3.1 Causes of Economic Instability
- 2.3.2 Effects of Economic Instability on Senior Secondary Schools Teachers Productivity
- 2.3.3 Evaluation of Teachers’ productivity in recent time
- 2.4 Empirical Studies
- 2.5 Appraisal of Literature Reviewed
- 3.1 Research Design
- 3.2 Population Sample and Sampling Techniques
- 3.3 Research Instrument(s)
- 3.4 Validity and Reliability of the Instrument(s)
- 3.5 Procedures for Data Collection
- 3.6 Methods of Data Analysis
Data Presentation, Analysis and Data Discussion
- 4.1 Descriptive Analysis of the Socio-Demographic Data of the Teachers
- 4.2 Research Question
- 4.3 Discussion of Findings
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
- 5.1 Summary
- 5.2 Conclusion
- 5.3 Recommendations
1.1 Background to the Study
Economic instability is a situation in which a community or nation is experiencing financial struggles due to inflation, consumer confidence issues, unemployment rates and rising prices of goods and services.
Economic instability is one of the factors that is hindering most developing countries of the world from achieving full development and maturity in their economy. Developing nations such as: Nigeria, Ghana, Gambia and a host of others just to mention but a few are currently in this situation (Ghaus-Pasha, 2017).
A developing country or nation like Nigeria is severely affected with the task or in her struggle to attain advancement (Tierney, 2000). According to (Ijaya, 2000) referred to developing countries as the countries that have slow and gradual process of growth and development. Ijaya further emphasized that the countries have the potentials of development but due to the absence of absorbent capacity needed, they are unable to attain the advance level of development.
The characteristics of the developing nations can be traced as the root cause of these predicaments of which include general poverty, high rate of unemployment, rising population, high rate of illiteracy as well as many more of these. All these features above have been causing some distortions and set back in their country’s economic development (Ijaya, 2000).
Also, among these difficulties are incessant changes in monetary and fiscal policies, high rate of inflation, low level of national income that leads to low savings and investment, corruption, embezzlement, political instability, mismanagement of fund as well as mineral resources mismanagement. It is these continuous and erratic problems that have led to instability in the country’s economic situation. The rate of instability has influenced the entire Nigeria economic sectors in so many ways, due to policy implementation in the country, in this case, most of the sectors of the economy will be affected either positively or negatively. So, government needs to give adequate and serious attention to these various occupations.
Taking a look at the above points in relation to the role of teachers which are of immense value to the people. Therefore, any inconsistency or volatile changes in the country’s economic policy as well as other macro economic variables always have a negative impact on the life of teachers.
As a consequence of poor working condition in line with non conformation in the payment of teachers’ salary and allowance, the teachers’ purchasing power has greatly reduced which has affected their efficient and effective production in teaching and learning process. Hence, teachers’ productivity will decline when there is a fall in their standard of living as the generality of people will begin to look down on them because their expectations are not met.
According to Mursel (1990) the high rate of inflation and increase in the taxes which also not have a corresponding increase in the teachers’ salary have reduced their real income and their purchasing power drastically. Hence, fall in their standard of living and finally, fall in their performance.
The inadequate of incentives, motivation and reinforcement have affected teachers’ effectiveness and productivity, meanwhile education system depends heavily on the quality and productivity of its teachers for improving and maintaining standards and quality. Adegun, (1999), Anderson and Dyke, (1972) asserted that, “the corner stone of good education in any school is its faculty (teachers); fine buildings and equipment, special services and all other factors which help to provide favourable environment for leaning mean little if the learning experiences are directed by incompetent teachers”.
Secondary education is the second stage of formal education for children after primary education. At this level they are to be prepared for the third stage which include all kinds of post secondary education that all children receive at the higher institutions. This can be private or government established schools in Nigeria.
All over the world, both in the developing and the developed countries, the secondary school exists to cater for children, of approximately the same age group and exposed to approximately the same curricular of reading, writing and arithmetic. The duration of secondary education varies from country to country. In Nigeria, the normal duration is six years according to the 6-3-3-4 education system. (Adegun, 1999).
The role of teacher in implementation of national educational objectives cannot be over emphasized. Indeed, reformers of education may establish new school, effect changes on the structure and curriculum, recommend and prescribed teaching method and aids but in the end the teacher will be responsible for applying them. The teacher is the one that would translate educational objectives into knowledge and skill as well as transfer them to student in the classroom. (Adegun,1999).
Also, the teacher represents the image that improves the physical condition of the classroom through orderliness, discipline and control. The teacher also diagnoses the students’ feelings and attitudes from their previous experiences in the classroom environment. Hence, in the absence of school programmes the major responsibility of working with children in the school rests with the teacher (Lash and Kirkpatrick, 1990). Ndagi, (1995) categorized the main objectives of secondary education into six strands as follows:
- Development of permanent literacy and numeracy in children.
- Development of the ability to communicate effectively.
- Training for further education and preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.
- Development of good morals.
- Development of the basis for good physical health education.
- Development of basis for scientific and reflective thanks.
Nakpodia (2006) observed that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in the commitment of the teachers. But in Nigeria according to him, teachers who are the shapers of civilization are affected by low self esteem and poverty. Therefore, objectives of secondary education raised by Ndagi , (1995) may be unrealistic.
In recent times, it is a note that many secondary school levers can neither read nor write accurately. Judging from the products of the Nigerian secondary schools, there is a big question mark on the level of performance and the productivity of their teachers. Secondary school teachers complain bitterly about the irregularities in the payments of their salaries and allowance. Adegun, (1999). Also, they are dissatisfied with the infrastructural facilities in school, equipment and general environment. Their offices are ill-equipped. Most of the times the commonest teaching aids such as the chalk, chalkboard are inadequate. Thus lead to low level of motivation. A typical secondary school teacher complains all the time about lack of job satisfaction and loss of interest on their part. They agree that they have not put in their best and that the educational standards are falling. Adegun, (1999).
Teachers’ frequent industrial actions testify to lack of government concern over their welfare. Teachers’ strike activities reduce their commitment to work and expose students’ to less educational attainment. (Adegun, 1999).
The fall in the senior secondary school teachers’ productivity has resulted into fall in the educational standard of the country and this is the concern of every educational researcher. Therefore, there is need to examine the influence of economic instability on academic performance of senior secondary school teachers.
The economic instability has negative impact on the life of teachers in terms of psychological, emotional and social status. Salaries and allowances of secondary school teachers are importance as good job environment and job satisfaction with regards to job performance. Job satisfaction is a function of the general aura of the work environment. According to (Adegun, 1999), it appears a number of factors hamper the teachers’ job performance or productivity in spite of society’s high expectations and output of the school systems.
The quality of teachers as well as other supporting staff, their level of motivation and organizational climate can significantly influence the tone of the school and the performance of the students. According to Whawo, (1999), the reason why the activities of educational administration also centered around staff issues include improved conditions of service, provision of professional development through in-service programmes, seminars and workshops.
The secondary school teachers in particular should feel at home and be very happy with their jobs in other to bring up the children in the proper way that will make them become useful and productive citizens. Amber and Andy Ankowski, 2003-2017. Secondary school teachers’ promotions, discipline, then transfers and periodic evaluation should be done with the aim of improving their performance and productivity. Gottfredson, Daniel Duke, Molee, (1989). The school managers to adopt the Behavioural Approach proposed by B. F. Skinner otherwise known as behavioural modification, on secondary school teachers to advantage. To change the attitude and low productivity of secondary school teachers, the first step is to identify the behaviour to be changed, the current factors that support the undesired behaviour to be changed, the current environment or other factors that are needed to effect positive change in behaviour. Thus by carefully identifying the behaviour and grievances of the teachers to identify those actions that should be sustained by reinforcement and motivation, their job can be influence Huitt, (1996).
Hertzberg (1996) as cited by Odor (1995) differentiated between factors that bring about job satisfaction and job dissatisfaction which include achievement, recognition, work facilities, responsibility and advancement. It is vital for educational administrators to recognize the factors which contribute to job satisfaction such as good infrastructural facilities, good and well furnished offices for teachers, teaching materials, and provision of continuous professional development. This will ensure adequate motivation of teachers to greater productivity.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
The constant drop in the standard of educational system in Nigeria is a big concern to both parents and educational researchers. The source of this fall in the standard of education in Nigeria can be traced to a decrease in the productive capacity of senior secondary school teachers. Nakpodia (2006) suggested that job security of workers in terms of income and employment will enhance stability of personnel and a long term commitment. When teacher’s salaries are not paid as at when due the level of commitment is reduced.
Incessant industrial actions due to non-payment of teachers’ salaries, leave and other allowances are common occurrence among the secondary school teachers. Many teachers now resort engaging in other business which take so much of their time and interest that teaching becomes a secondary assignment. This they do because they are never sure when the next salary would be paid Labaran Saleh (2013).
Nakpodia (2006) also observed that in any educational arrangement, the success lies in the commitment of the teachers who are the shapers of civilization are affected by low self esteem and poverty. So, any inconsistency or volatile changes in the country’s economic policy as well as other macro economic variables always have a negative effect on the life of teachers. Hence, a number of factors determine the teachers’ productivity in the school. It has also been observed that teachers’ productivity are poor, the expected outcome of teachers’ performance which is better students’ achievement is not easily achieved in the school system. People are complaining about the poor productivity of teachers which in turn leads to poor students’ achievement.
Inconsistency or volatile changes in Nigeria’s economic policy refers to government behaviour toward frequent changes in economic policy formulation and implementation. There is growing evidence that one of the major constraints to economic growth and social welfare improvement is inconsistency in government policies and gaps in their implementation. (Ezekwesili ,2016) and (Ngozi Okongu-Iweala, 2017).
Anthony Arabone, (2016) said that policy inconsistency over the years in Nigeria is a major factor that has led to the stunted economic being experienced in the country. Esekwesili, (2016) said that the inconsistent economic policies of federal government is responsible for the collapse of public education in the past, present and future prospects of the Nigerian state. She went on to state that where there is a poor economic growth and inconsistent infrastructure to boost the educational structure, a collapse in the education system is inevitable in any part of the world.
Esekwesili, (2016) also opined that education was essential for character building and it is the responsibility of the government to ensure that its citizenry are given adequate as well as quality education across board. According to her, teaching is a noble profession and there is need for well trained teachers with sufficient provision in public schools. “No matter the structure and technology available in a school environment, if there are no quality teachers nothing much can be achieved”. She noted that between 2006 and 2007, there was an inadequate inspection of schools throughout the federation, then about 60% of Nigerian are within the poverty bracket. This poverty level also persists up till now in the country especially in Kwara State in which it can only be broken by education.
According to Ukeje (1990), organizational climate is related to job satisfaction in terms of interpersonal relationship, group cohesiveness and task involvement. Worker’s general perception of work environment has a great influence on the level of satisfaction and productivity. As a result of this, there is a need to examine the impact of economic instability as a determinant of senior secondary school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State.
1.3 Research Questions
- What is the impact of economic instability on secondary school teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin?
- What is the influence of economic instability on male and female teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin?
- What is the influence of economic instability on teachers productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on years of experience?
- What is the influence of economic instability on secondary school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin based on level of qualification?
1.4 Research Hypotheses
The research hypotheses were answered in this study as follows:
- H01: There is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on male and female teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin.
- H02: There is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on years of experience.
- H03: There is no significant difference in influence of economic instability on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary school in Ilorin based on level of qualifications.
1.5 Purpose of the Study
The general purpose of this research work is to examine economic instability as a determinant of senior secondary school teachers’ productivity in Ilorin, Kwara State. Specifically, the study intends to:
- Determine the extent of economic instability factors on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on gender.
- Determine the extent of economic instability influence on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on teachers’ years of experience.
- Determine the extent of economic instability influence on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on teachers’ qualification level.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This research work hopes to provide a base for the upliftment of educational standard as well as better conditions of service for secondary school teachers in general. It is also hoped that the civil servants particularly teachers in Ilorin metropolis and in Nigeria at large will benefit from this study in finding solutions to the problems of economic instability as a determinant of senior secondary school teachers’ productivity. It is further believed that the work will invite criticisms from educators and others which will in turn stimulate further research into the improvement in teachers’ productivity in education sector.
In view of the fact that education helps child contributes positively towards economic and social growth as well as growth in other areas of national development. It will also help the child in his or her life style. More so, as a nation, Nigeria will still develop more.
This study is significant because much needs to be done in the area of teachers’ education to determine the level of job satisfaction of secondary school teachers in Ilorin metropolis. Therefore, if the government’s emphasis on teachers’ education is to yield good return on investment, then the level of good service conditions of teachers in these schools should be determined from time to time such effort could be helpful to educational administrators in their plan to motivate the teachers so as to enhance the quality of their output.
1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study
This research work intends to determine influence of economic instability on secondary school teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
Questionnaires would be used as the instrument for data collection, while frequency counts, percentages, indices and the t-test shall be used to analyze a data collected. The study samples shall be drawn from the teachers of chosen schools based on gender, years of experience, level of qualification. The researcher appreciates the fact that the findings might be further from the truth.
1.8 Operational Definition of Terms
This is a situation that arises due to the inconsistency or fluctuation in the micro economic variables (GDP) as a result of frequent changes in both monetary and fiscal policies, high rate of inflation, low level of national income, political instability, corruption and mismanagement of fund.
Factors Determining Economic Instability:
Here are some of the determinant factors of economic instability:
Inconsistency in Economic Policy:
This refers to frequent changes in government economic policy.
It is a situation where there is a continuous and persistent rise in the general price level of goods and services.
This is a situation whereby a country is currently going through political turmoil.
This is a form of dishonest or unethical conduct by a person entrusted with a position of authority.
Mismanagement of fund:
This refers to financial mismanagement and misappropriation of public funds e.t.c.
These are the learners in the secondary schools.
These are the senior secondary schools in Ilorin metropolis.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
This chapter presents the summary, conclusion and recommendations drawn based on the findings of this study.
5.1 Summary of Major Findings
The summary of findings of this study as obtained from the outcomes of the research question and hypotheses were as follows:
- The majority (70.5%) of the secondary school teachers in Ilorin indicated that economic instability had negative impact on their productivity.
- There was a significant difference in influence of economic instability on male and female teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin. Male teachers felt the impact of economic instability on their productivity than their female counterparts
- There was no significant difference in the influence of economic instability on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on years of experience.
- There was no significant difference in the influence of economic instability on teachers’ productivity in senior secondary schools in Ilorin based on levels of qualification
It was concluded from this study that despite the fact that, Nigeria is a well blessed nation with abundant resources there are some form of hardship situation being experienced in her economy such as high cost of living people are undergoing particularly senior secondary school teachers in Ilorin who are stressing themselves largely to earn their living. Also, the relationship between economic instability and academic performance of majority of senior secondary school teachers based on the productivity is significantly different. That is, it has a negative or adverse impart on male teachers than their female counterparts as they are performing below the general expectation. This also influence their performance on adequate supervision of their students.
Therefore, in order to solve these problems of economic instability and improve academic performance of the teachers in Ilorin metropolis and Nigeria generally, it is the responsibility of both the government and educational management to find means of improving the living condition of senior secondary school teachers by stabilizing the economy so that the real and money worth in the economy will be adequately improved.
- Government should make efforts to provide ways for the training of senior secondary school teachers. It is recommended that, in-service training for teachers should be arranged on state and local basis to assist in improving the quality of teachers.
- Increment and regular payment of senior secondary school teachers’ salaries should be ensured so as to gear them up to improve their productivity.
- Motivation and reinforcement should be given as these would in turn boost their performance.
- Government should adopt a lasting and positive inflationary control measure that will not be too harsh for teachers’.
- Government should embark on staff auditing programmes, as this will also improve the productivity of teachers.
- The ministry of education at all tiers of government should make periodic supervision to the activities of the teachers and give room for the way forward.
- Government should ensure proper and effective implementation of price stability measure.
- An economic submit meeting should be held at a regular interval with duly representatives from all sectors of the economy to address the issue of economic instability.
Economic Instability As A Determinant Of Senior Secondary School Teachers’ Productivity In Ilorin, Kwara State
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