Economic Analysis Of Food Safety Among Pork Marketers

Project and Seminar Material for Agronomy Students

Economic Analysis Of Food Safety Among Pork Marketers


Abstract


The purpose of this study was to examine the economic analysis of food safety among pork marketers in Ebonyi State. Primary data were collected from 80 poultry farmers selected through multi-stage random sampling technique using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, farm budgetary technique, benefit cost analysis and ordinary least square regression analysis was used to analyze the data and determine the economic cost of food safety and production of pork meat.

Three important findings emerged; first, pork marketing in Ebonyi state is dominated by highly educated youths, a positive sign for food safety and future pork meat activities. Second, pork production is highly profitable in Ebonyi state; however, food safety contributed the highest economic cost in the area of study. Thirdly, the costs of inputs as well as safety as revealed by the regression analysis were high and increasing with the size of production thereby depriving the marketers the full benefit of their efforts.


Table Of Content


Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgement
  • Abstract
  • Table of content

Chapter One

1.0 Introduction

  • 1.1 Background To The Study
  • 1.2 Statement Of Problem
  • 1.3 Objectives Of The Study
  • 1.4 Justification Of The Study

Chapter Two

2.0 Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Review
  • 2.2 Regulatory Impact Assessment And Food Safety
  • 2.3 Benefits Of Food Safety Regulation
  • 2.4 Marketing Of Swine And Swine Products
  • 2.5 Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

3.0 Research Methodology

  • 3.1 The Study Area
  • 3.2 Sampling Techniques And Sample Frame
  • 3.3 Data Collection
  • 3.4 Methods Of Data Analysis

Chapter Four

4.0 Results And Discussion


Chapter Five

5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background Of The Study

Pig is one of the domestic animals found in Nigeria and most parts of West Africa. Pigs are reared for the production of meat called pork and fat called lard. The pig produces litters twice a year. One litter or one birth give between eight (8) and sixteen (16) piglets. They also eat anything that is edible when given. Although, the rearing of pig and its consumption is not popular in Moslems areas in Nigeria because of the religion. Some people look at pigs as dirty animal usually found in muddy water, the meat is also believed to be responsible for the carrying of tapeworm, to human beings. This is probably responsible for some people prefer meat from other animal to pig meat. The breeds of pigs now reared in Nigeria include those that are native to Nigeria and the one brought from other countries such as Britain and United States of America.

Local West Africa Dwarf Pig:

This breed are kept by the local farmers in villages and towns in southern parts of Nigeria. It is small in size and usually black or brown in colour. It lives in dirty environment, and eats anything that comes it way. The breed is a native to West Africa.

Large White:

This is a popular meat producing pig in Nigeria. It is white in colour with average size, it is resistant to trypanosomiasis disease, hence found in Southern Nigeria – the pigs is a native to America.

Land Race:

This is larger than other breeds of pig. It has white hairs and skin. Land race has ears which are pointing forward. The animal has very good meat. It originated from Norway. Duroc: The pig has large body. The colour is golden yellow or cherry red. It has droopy ears. The animal come from U.S.A.

Large Black:

The animal is black in colour with droopy ear. It is a god meat (pork) producer and came from U.S.A.

Chester White:

The pig has white skin, the ears are droopy and heavier than duroc. It can produce many offspring in one birth. It originated from Pennsylvania in U.S.A

Tamworth:

The animal has red colour, large head, small legs and slim body. It is a native of Ireland.

Production Strategies (Management)

There are three (3) major production strategies which are as follows:

  1. Intensive management practices
  2. Semi-intensive management practice and/or free range management practices.

Pigs are very prolific animals whose rate of production is better than most other domestic animals. Pigs have a high conversion rate of 1:5 of the Gross energy taken. They are able to convert compounded fats into meat more cheaply and rapidly than most other domestic animal. Pork carcass yields a high percentage of dressed meat and a high portion of edible parts.

Pork is a good source of animal protein. It is high in energy, attractive, nutritious, tasty and tender. This is apparently due to the fact that slaughter animal are young, so, because of these development concerning pork meat, many business men and women have since seize the opportunity to go into the venture as marketing (trading), and consumption of pork meat, but that not withstanding, the safety aspect must not be neglected, and those who sale the meat pork and those consuming the product.

Meat inspection is commonly perceive as the sanitary control of slaughter animal and meat with the purpose of providing safe and wholesome meat for human consumption and to ensure that only apparently healthy, physiologically normal one are slaughter for human consumption and abnormal animals are separated and dealt with accordingly. The responsibility of achieving this objectives lies primarily with the relevant public/private health authority, the problem associated with the meat production, centres on the role and functional effectiveness of the heath ministry, yet the observing thought that has become all too evident in the year past is that, increase in meat production alone is not the answer. This is so, partly because such an increase is sometimes supported without appropriate pre-slaughter/post slaughter measure and safety status of animal which should be properly tackled and taking into consideration.

In many countries of the world, meat inspection lack the necessary information and guideline to access the sanitary status of animal, meat from slaughter animal (FAO, 1998) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) in collaboration with the World Health Organization (WHO) approved the foundation of the international commission of codex Alimentarius to establish a joined program on food regulation (FAO, 2003).
The Codex Alimentarius, has turned into the reference point for food businessmen, industrialist, traders and consumers, it is the guide for the international, national organization in charge of the products’ control for the elaboration of the internal quality regulation of food, for protecting the consumers health at local, regional, national and world scale (FAO, 2003).

World Health Organization has therefore endeavour to prepare a concise guideline on the subject together with colour illustration demonstrating the pathological lesion that many occur in pigs, bovines, small ruminant, poultry etc, the statement was made on the judgment of disease carcasses or part of the carcasses are recommendation, which are influenced by the need of salvaging as much meat as possible for human consumption and that abnormal animal should be separated appropriately and dealt with accordingly. To ensure that animal or meat (from abattoir) are free from disease, wholesome and possess no-threat to human (WHO, 2003).


1.2 Statement Of Problem

The problem which the study seeks to address is the issue of consumer safety. The concern is that meat should not predisposes man to food born diseases. The research questions are:

  1. To estimate the determinant of food safety.
  2. To identify the food safety practice.
  3. To estimate the cost of food safety.

1.3 Objectives Of The Study

The general objectives of the study is to examine the safety issues associated with pork meat marketing in the study area. The specific objectives are:

  1. To identify the socio-economic characteristics of the pork marketers.
  2. To identify safety practices adopted by pork seller in the study area to guarantee consumers safety.
  3. To estimate the determinant of pork meat consumer safety in the study area.

1.4 Justification Of The Study

This study seeks to accomplish and increase awareness and knowledge, on how to provide wholesome meat for human consumption, and the need to position the general public, inspection/health ministry and of course, the abattoir operators of their call to duties instead of the negligence that has become a course for concern, owing to disease threat and it related condition. And also, because of deformed nature of the appropriate agencies and ministry, the abattoir operator has cease the opportunity to slaughter sick animal and disease management history. And on the other, the small retailers in our various market has not meet up with their safety security measures.

This study is therefore meant not only to bring to our minds the pre-cautionary measures, but safety consciousness, the appropriate ministries, and to remind them of their responsibilities, why the general public should be aware also that wholesome meat and its consumption is their right to life. The wholesomeness of meat and their consumption should spur us to imbibe the spirit of food security for a better and happier living.


Chapter Five


5.0 Conclusion And Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

An attempt to examine the economics of food safety among pork marketers in Ebonyi State was the principal focus of this study. Primary data were collected from 80 poultry farmers selected through multi-stage random sampling technique using structured questionnaire. Descriptive statistics, farm budgetary technique, benefit cost analysis and ordinary least square regression analysis was used to analyze the data and determine the economic cost of food safety and production of pork meat.

The results of the analyses revealed that majority (72.5%) of the respondents were male with the mean age of 38.7 years. (63.8%) of these youths had keen interest in pork marketing and production and chose pork marketing/sales as their main occupation. Three important findings emerged; first, pork marketing in Ebonyi state is dominated by highly educated youths, a positive sign for food safety and future pork meat activities. Second, pork production is highly profitable in Ebonyi state; however, food safety contributed the highest economic cost in the area of study. Thirdly, the costs of inputs as well as safety as revealed by the regression analysis were high and increasing with the size of production thereby depriving the marketers the full benefit of their efforts.


5.2 Recommendation

  1. To reduce cost of production and hygiene should form agricultural cooperative groups which will enable them to benefit from the economy of scale through bulk purchases of farm inputs.
  2. Government should encourage the youths involved by providing them technical knowledge in the area of resource management through the extension agents to assist in reduction of production cost and health hazards.
  3. Government should try to provide the essential farm input such as drugs and vaccine to the farmers at the right time and at subsidized prices to improve food safety and reduce the cost of production in order to improve profitability.

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