The Dynamics Of Human Relations In The Maritime Industry In Nigeria
This study was intended to examine the dynamics of human relations in the maritime industry in Nigeria. This study was guided by the following objectives; to assess the practices regarding human resources in maritime industries, to assess the development and performance appraisal of human resources in maritime industries, to assess the compensation practices in maritime industries and to identify the contemporary HR practices (like workforce diversity) being practiced in maritime industries.
The study will employ descriptive and explanatory design; questionnaires in addition to library research will be applied in order to collect data. Primary and secondary data sources will be used and data will be analyzed using the chi square statistical tool at 5% level of significance which will be presented in frequency tables and percentage. It is therefore recommended that human element in the maritime/shipping industry, and in particular seafarers, should be treated as a human capital who can add worth to the business with preferable protection, indemnity and deliberate investment.
1.1 Background of the Study
The economy has transitioned to what some call ‘The Age of Information’- an economy in which gross domestic product is increasingly dominated by services. Services permeate every aspect of our lives. We use transportation services; restaurant services; hotels; electricity and telephones; postal, courier and maintenance services; services of hairdressers; services of public relations and advertising firms; lawyers; physicians; dentists; stockbrokers and insurance agents; movie theatres; and swimming pools and Disney-style theme parks (Bateson and Hoffman, 2009). When we do buy goods, such as new car or a washing machine, we often still rely on services to keep them running and repair them when they break down. Services allow us to budget our time as well as our money (Bateson and Hoffman, 2009).
“The twentieth century was the age of machine; the twenty-first century will be the age of people” (Kanter as in Kermally, 2006). Buzzwords like globalization, empowerment, cross functional teams, downsizing, learning organizations and knowledge workers are changing the way of life of managers and the way they manage people (Kermally, 2006). The maritime industry is a prime example of a globalized industry now attached loosely to national sovereignties. Maritime differs from other examples of global business, such as fast-food chains and the auto industries, in that its physical capital is itself movable in a way that a burger kiosk or car plant is not. Due to this feature of the industry, strategic and human relations have a mobile dimension not shared by the general run of manufacturing and transport industries (Klikauer and Morris, 2003). Advancing globalization, more flexible tax regimes and an increasing mobile workforce are creating opportunities and challenges for the maritime industry. New corporate strategies and processes are required to deal with an industry which is being reshaped through market consolidation and shifts in the balance of world trade.
1.2 Statement of the Problem
Managing people is not a matter of manipulation. It is about working with your staff and colleagues (human resources) on a partnership basis to achieve the strategic goals of the organization (Kermally, 2006). The most important contribution management needs to make in the 21st century is to increase the productivity of knowledge work and knowledge workers (Drucker, 2009). Human beings are not bulk goods.
They come in different shapes and forms. To attract and retain people, we have to treat them as individuals. Today’s employees are more questioning and demanding. They are confident enough to air their concerns, grievances and aspirations. Brainpower dominates modern organizations. It is their essence. We are increasingly competing on competence. People can make your organization, your products and your service solutions unique.
How you manage and lead people and how you organize your operations, determines whether you succeed (Thite, 2004) and there is only one valid definition of business purpose, i.e., to create a customer (Drucker, 2004). Excellent industries are close to their customers; other industries talk about it and the excellent industries do it (Peter and Waterman, 2002). One must define one’s business not in terms of product made or sold but in terms of what needs of the customer are satisfied, i.e., in terms of what service is provided to the customer (Levitt, 2006).
1.3 Objectives of the Study
- The study sought to evaluate the dynamics of human relations in the marine industry. Specifically, the study sought to;
- 1. To assess the practices regarding human resources in maritime industries.
- 2. To assess the development and performance appraisal of human resources in maritime industries.
- 3. To assess the compensation practices in maritime industries.
- 4. To identify the contemporary HR practices (like workforce diversity) being practiced in maritime industries.
1.4 Research Questions
- How are human resources practiced in maritime industries?
- What is the development and performance of human resource in maritime industries?
- Are there compensation practices in maritime industries?
- What are the contemporary HR practices being practiced in maritime industries?
1.5 Research Hypotheses
- H0: There are no significant practices regarding human resources in maritime industries.
- Hi: There are practices regarding human resources in maritime industries.
- H0: There are no compensation practices in maritime industries.
- Hi: There are compensation practices in maritime industries.
1.6 Significance of the Study
This study will be of immense benefit to other researchers who intend to know more on this study and can also be used by non-researchers to build more on their research work. This study contributes to knowledge and could serve as a guide for other study.
1.7 Scope of the Study
This study is on the dynamics of human relations in the maritime industry in Nigeria. The research study will cover the entire staff of maritime industry in Portharcourt, Rivers state, Nigeria.
1.8 Limitations of the Study
The demanding schedule of respondents at work made it very difficult getting the respondents to participate in the survey. As a result, retrieving copies of questionnaire in timely fashion was very challenging. Also, the researcher is a student and therefore has limited time as well as resources in covering extensive literature available in conducting this research. Information provided by the researcher may not hold true for all businesses or organizations but is restricted to the selected organization used as a study in this research especially in the locality where this study is being conducted. Finally, the researcher is restricted only to the evidence provided by the participants in the research and therefore cannot determine the reliability and accuracy of the information provided.
Financial constraint: Insufficient fund tends to impede the efficiency of the researcher in sourcing for the relevant materials, literature or information and in the process of data collection (internet, questionnaire and interview).
Time constraint: The researcher will simultaneously engage in this study with other academic work. This consequently will cut down on the time devoted for the research work.
1.9 Definition of Terms
Human relations movement refers to the researchers of organizational development who study the behaviour of people in groups, particularly in workplace groups and other related concepts in fields such as industrial and organizational psychology. Human relation is the process of training employees, addressing their needs, fostering a workplace culture and resolving conflicts between different employees or between employees and management.
Dynamics is the branch of classical mechanics concerned with the study of forces and their effects on motion. Isaac Newton defined the fundamental physical laws which govern dynamics in physics, especially his second law of motion.
Maritime transport, fluvial transport, or more generally waterborne transport is the transport of people or goods via waterways. Freight transport by sea has been widely used throughout recorded history
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations
5.1 Summary of Findings
The objectives of the study were to;
- To assess the practices regarding human resources in maritime industries.
- To assess the development and performance appraisal of human resources in maritime industries.
- To assess the compensation practices in maritime industries.
- To identify the contemporary HR practices (like workforce diversity) being practiced in maritime industries.
Findings from the study revealed that majority of the respondents were of the opinion that there are practices regarding human resources in maritime industries and that there are compensation practices in maritime industries.
Productivity in transport firms do not only depend on human resource effect alone but mostly depends on labour and capital inputs. The conclusion regarding the returns to training do not depend on the choice of the capital measurements available to us this is because human resource effect may be significant at 1% level using a fixed effect estimators (De Kok, 2000) for both the gross production and the value added if capital is measured by depreciation cost. Therefor if firms increase their relative amount of training and motivation support, they are likely to benefit more from the courses those employees take with respect to the overall productivity. The impact of labour on productions is measured using the amount of the working days spent in training and not the training cost. This is because using training expenditures yields less significant result and can be seen to confirm the above assertion. It is therefore recommended that transport firms should invest optimally in human resources developments in terms of manpower training in the organisations. Transport Managers should be able to give enough motivation to their workers which will invariably increase their efficiency and hence the productivity of the firms. Government should make adequate provisions for the transport sector to boast the output level of each sub-sector.
- Training programmes should be redesigned to capture individual employee peculiarities.
- Needs based training programme must be emphasized in the organization.
- The organization should continue to improve upon its technological state of operation through investment in information and computer technology and other performance enhancing measures or strategies.
- There is a need to involve workers at all levels (by way of inputs) in decision making. This in itself offers a starting point in training and in preparing trainees to assume higher responsibilities in the organization.
- Training should be accorded top priority and should not be made to compete with some other demands for funding. A well-trained, mobilized and motivated workforce is undoubtedly an asset to any organization.
- There is a need for genuine efforts and attempts to initiate and implement appropriate management philosophies that emphasize collective decision-making and other forms of industrial democratic methods.
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Frequently Asked Questions
What are the challenges faced by maritime sector in Nigeria?
Key Challenges Facing The Maritime Sector. Some of the key factors that influence the development of shipping industry in Nigeria include: inadequate financing, inefficient ports infrastructure, deficit in maritime infrastructure, inefficiencies, lack of transparency and sharp practices.
What are the factors affecting the development of shipping industry in Nigeria?
Some of the key factors that influence the development of shipping industry in Nigeria include: inadequate financing, inefficient ports infrastructure, deficit in maritime infrastructure, inefficiencies, lack of transparency and sharp practices.
Who are the major players in the Nigerian maritime industry?
The maritime industry in Nigeria is mostly dominated by the following players; the Nigerian Maritime Administration and Safety Agency (NIMASA), Nigerian Ports Authority (NPA), Nigerian Shipowners Association (NSA), the Nigerian Shippers Council (NSC), Ministry of Trade and Transportation, operators, finance institution and private investors.
What is the maritime industry?
Put succinctly, the industry embraces all the maritime related business activities which take place within the country’s maritime environment.