Drugs And Alcoholism Among Cab Riders In FCT Abuja (A Study Of NUTRW Branch Of Apo Legislative Quarters)

Project and Seminar Material for Sociology

Drugs And Alcoholism Among Cab Riders In FCT Abuja (A Study Of NUTRW Branch Of Apo Legislative Quarters)


Abstract


This study was carried out on drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja, using NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters as a case study. The survey design was adopted and the simple random sampling techniques were employed in this study. The population size comprised of cab riders and administrative officers in NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters. In determining the sample size, the researcher purposefully selected 53 respondents and 50 were validated. Self-constructed and validated questionnaire was used for data collection. The collected and validated questionnaires were analyzed using frequency tables, and mean scores. The result of the findings reveals that the prevalence of the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja is high. The study also revealed that the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of road accidents. Furthermore, the study revealed that the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja include; age, level of education, peer pressure, environment, culture. Therefore, it is recommended that Government should organize routine targeted health education interventions for these commercial drivers; there is also a need to step up the process of enactment of laws to determine legal alcohol drinking limit in Nigeria so that ‘drinking under influence’ and all its attendant consequences, can be addressed through education and enforcement of regulations guiding it. This should also be done for other substances of abuse. To mention but a few.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

The association between substance use and accidental injury or death has been acknowledged. In the UK for instance, alcohol accounts for 50,000 deaths per year and up to 500,000 hospital admissions annually (World Health Organization. (2017). In the United States of America, about 10,000 deaths was attributed to use of alcohol by young people. The WHO has reported a link between drivers’ hazardous use of alcohol and road traffic accidents in Nigeria (WHO, 2017). Approximately 50% of accidents, and its attendant consequences, on Nigerian roads are related to alcohol use (Yunusa & Obembe 2016). Many studies in Nigeria have also reported common use of alcohol (and other psychoactive substances) among commercial and long distance vehicle drivers (Makanjuola et al, 2007b, UNAIDS 2007). Crouch, Birky& Gust (2016) found a prevalence of 32% of alcohol drinking prior to driving. The Global action on harmful drinking reported the prevalence of current drinking by commercial drivers in Nigeria (from Port Harcourt and Ile-Ife) was 67.2%. Of those drivers, 47% were “heavy” users, 15.3% were “moderate” users and 37.7% were occasional or “mild” users. In addition, Gboyega, (2012) found that between 60% and 70% of commercial drivers engage in drinking and driving. Makanjuola et al, (2007) reported that driving was done in conjunction with the use of the following psychoactive drugs: alcohol (15.9%), tobacco (30.4%), cannabis (4.3%), caffeine (31.9%), sedatives (10.1%) and solvents (8.7%).

The WHO estimated that billions of people in the world, or one-third of the total population over the age of 14, had consumed so-called tobacco, in the form of cigarettes, with 700 million of these smokers being males, and unfortunately, these people were reported to be living in developing countries (WHO, 2004).Furthermore, it has been observed that smoking usually leads to the use of hard and toxic drugs (Crouch, Birky& Gust 2016).

In general, drugs are beneficial when used properly and harmful when misused or abused, but most youth are substance abusers (Mohammad, 2014). Illicit drug use is a major public health issue in high-income countries such as the United States. However, the problem of illicit substance use has rapidly spread to include middle and low income countries, where the majority of their youth and adolescents are actively involved in this illegal practice (Aliyu, 2014; Mohammad, 2014).

The intake of substance or toxic drug is a medical, social, cultural, and other variable problem that is not solely medical or moral in nature. According to Schmelleger (2002), people accept the use of certain substances or drugs under certain conditions as a benign and even beneficial practice because of their social and individual circumstances. The use of drugs such as Benylin with codeine, Tutolin with codeine, for medical purposes such as whooping cough is not drug abuse; it only becomes abuse when it is geared toward producing desired behaviors, physical dependency, addiction, and/or constituting a nuisance to society.

In spite of the foregoing, the use of psychoactive substance use and driving has continued unabated in Nigeria. The Federal Road Safety Corp and other civil organizations, have continued to put up campaigns against drunk-driving. The enforcement aspect against drunk-driving has, unfortunately, been unsuccessful as there is no legal basis for determining the legal limits of blood alcohol concentration (BAC) in the Nigerian Traffic laws (Adekoya, Adekoya, Adepoju, Owoeye 2017). While the consequences of vehicular accidents involving drunk drivers have been established, the implications of drunk driving with a fuel laden tanker are even greater. This will include fire which usually extends beyond the scene of accidents, loss of properties such as houses, cars of innocents passers-by and damage to roads due to sloughing off of heated or melted bitumen. The sloughed off portions of the road readily develops into pot hole which are known causes of serious accidents.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

While the common sequelae of use of alcohol and psychoactive drugs among automobile drivers (such as road traffic accidents, loss of body parts and injuries) are recognized, there is a need to remain conscious of other fall outs that are equally damaging to the development of the society. These will include the known association between increased high risk sexual behaviour and psychoactive substance use (Adekoya, Adekoya, Adepoju, Owoeye 2017); and disruption of social networks due to disturbed behavior and strained social and occupational relationships (Makanjuola et al 2007a, Laosebikan & Baiyewu 2009). Other consequences include hepatitis B, C, carcinoma of the lungs, liver cirrhosis and primary liver carcinoma, alcohol hallucinosis and dementia.

In Nigeria, it is not uncommon to find non-commercial alcohol being sold in or around the motor parks. They are sold as herbal concoctions against malaria or low back aches popularly referred to as jedi-jedi. Often the buyers are unaware of the components of such herbal drugs especially the alcohol content.

There have been several studies on prevalence, pattern and psychosocial correlates of alcohol and other psychoactive substance use among various groups and subgroups in Nigeria (Adelekan et al, 2014), including long distance vehicle drivers (Makanjuola et al 2007a). However, we are not aware of existing published studies on alcohol and other psychoactive substances among tanker drivers. This study is therefore aimed at one, determining the prevalence of drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The primary objective of this study is to examine drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja: a study of NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters. Specifically but not limited to, other objectives of this study are:

  1. To determine whether cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism.
  2. To determine the extent of prevalence of use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja.
  3. To determine whether the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of accidents.
  4. To examine the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja.

1.4 Research Questions

The following research questions which are in line with the objectives of this study will be answered:

  1. Are cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism?
  2. What is the extent of prevalence of use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja?
  3. Does the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increase the risk of accidents?
  4. What are the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This research will be beneficial to the society as the findings of this study will reveal the use, prevalence and dangers of drugs and alcohol consumption or uptake among cab riders in Abuja. This study will also be of benefit to the cab riders as it will further reveal the impacts of alchol and drugs uptake by cab riders is harmful to health.
Finally, this work will be of great benefit to scholars and researchers as it will serve as an existing material for further studies and future research.


1.6 Scope of the Study

This study is focused on examine drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja: a study of NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters. Precisely, this study is focused on determining whether cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism, determining the extent of prevalence of use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja, determining whether the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of accidents and examining the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja.
Selected members of NURTW branch of Apo legislative quarters will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study.


1.7 Limitations of the Study

This study is focused limited to examine drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja: a study of NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters. Precisely, this study is limited to determining whether cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism, determining the extent of prevalence of use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja, determining whether the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of accidents and examining the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja.
Selected members of NURTW branch of Apo legislative quarters will serve as enrolled participants for the survey of this study, thus the sample size was limited because only a few respondents were chosen to answer the research instrument, therefore the results cannot be generalized to other secondary schools outside the FCT.


1.8 Definition pf Terms

Alcohol:

Acolourless volatile flammable liquid which is produced by the natural fermentation of sugars and is the intoxicating constituent of wine, beer, spirits, and other drinks, and is also used as an industrial solvent and as fuel.

Drugs:

An addicting drug capable of producing severe physical or psychological dependence, as heroin.


Chapter Five


Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Summary

In this study, our focus was on drugs and alcoholism among cab riders in FCT Abuja, using NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters as a case study. The study is was specifically carried out to determine whether cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism, determine the extent of prevalence of use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja, determine whether the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of accidents, and examine the factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja.

The study adopted the survey research design and randomly enrolled participants in the study. A total of 50 responses were validated from the enrolled participants where all respondent werecab riders and administrative officers in NUTRW branch of Apo legislative quarters.


5.2 Conclusion

Based on the findings of this study, the researcher concluded that;

  1. Cab riders in Abuja are knowledgeable about drugs and alcoholism.
  2. The prevalence of the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja is high.
  3. The use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja increases the risk of road accidents.
  4. The factors that leads to the use of alcohol and drugs among cab riders in Abuja include; age, level of education, peer pressure, environment, culture.

5.3 Recommendation

With respect to the findings and the aim of this study, the researchers therefore recommend that;

  1. Government should organize routine targeted health education interventions for these commercial drivers.
  2. There is also a need to step up the process of enactment of laws to determine legal alcohol drinking limit in Nigeria so that ‘drinking under influence’ and all its attendant consequences, can be addressed through education and enforcement of regulations guiding it. This should also be done for other substances of abuse.
  3. Agencies responsible for the safety of the roads, such as the Federal Road Safety Corp should intensify efforts towards carrying out routine tests including urine testing aimed at detecting, substances abused educating and sanctioning drivers who break the law.
  4. The National Union of Road Transport Workers should impose sanctions and other punitive measures on drivers who indulge in this inappropriate behaviour associated with the use of these psychoactive substances in order to serve as a deterrent to others.
  5. Efforts should be made to encourage drivers who abide by the rules such as giving awards.
  6. The union leaders should ensure the ban of the sale of these psychoactive substances in and around the motor parks.
  7. Drivers should caution themselves and take responsibility for their actions. They should also avoid working long hours which can lead to fatigue and hence the urge to use psychoactive substances to keep them alert and awake. Passengers should not patronize bus drivers who use these substances and can also report them to the relevant authorities.

Drugs And Alcoholism Among Cab Riders In FCT Abuja (A Study Of NUTRW Branch Of Apo Legislative Quarters)


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