The Use Of Dramatization Method In Teaching Auditory Impaired Learners: A Study of Selected Special Schools

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The Use Of Dramatization Method In Teaching Auditory Impaired Learners: A Study of Selected Special Schools


Chapter One


Introduction


1.1 Background To The Study

Education is a universal phenomenon and a lifelong process. It is described as an “instrument for excellence for effecting National Development In the National policy of Education (Page III, 4th Edition {2004}), this implies that it is indispensable tool with a goal to help an individual develop morally, intellectually and physically so that such a person can achieve his/her unique potential in life. The Nigeria Education system therefore had its foundation in the following:

  • Indigenous or Traditional Education
  • Islamic Education
  • Christian Missionary Education
  • Education Ordinance

National Curriculum conference of 1959 (Olusegun Egunjobi et al, 2006).

Which today has materialized into three (3) broad types, these are formal, informal and non-formal.

Formal Education:

This is this most popular type of Education in Nigeria and its also called “Schooling” it is the structured system of teaching and learning which takes place within the four walls of classroom or within a school setting. Examples of these are: primary schools, secondary schools, vocational and technical schools, colleges of Education among others.

Informal Education:

This refer to all indirect influences on the behaviour of an individual and examples or avenues through which informal Education is carried out are: the home, religious institutions, peer groups, media etc. (Fageyinbo, M. O 2004).

Non-Formal Education:

This type of education has both element of formal and informal Education but it can be said to be deliberate and organized education that takes place outside the classroom and does not follow a particular structure but is done at the learner’s pace and at his/her convenient time.

In light of this, it is stated in the National Policy on Education (1981) and the universal Basic Education (U.B.E) programme (1999) that “every child of school age shall have a right to equal opportunities without exception and indeed emphasis that a child’s mental, physical, emotional or psychological limitation should not be a hindrance to the acquisition of Education. This goal however did not fully materialize on time in Nigeria because formal education (i.e. schooling) was initially restricted to children that were considered or thought of as “normal” therefore children who due to one form of disability or handicapped situation were exceptional did not go through the formal education infact, a child born with any sign of deformity was usually seen as an abnormal child who brought misfortune to the parents and the society at large, so more often than not such children were ridiculed, neglected, castigated, some were sacrificed to the gods, some died while some became wanderes.It is sad to note that even in this twenty first (21) century some of these children are still being maltreated.

Things took a positive turn in the 60’s as Christian Missionaries established schools for the handicapped in several parts of the country and in the years that followed, the 70’s to be precise, special schools structures were set up Nationwide especially in Oyo state. Today, Nigeria has at least seventy-three (73) special schools nationwide (Obani, 2004).

However, in the education of special children, adequate attention should be giving to those who are auditory impaired; this is because of the Nature of their disability. Theirs is a condition in which they are fully or partially unable to detect or perceive at least some frequency of sounds which can typically be heard by other people (Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, 2009).

These people (i.e. auditory impaired) are often classified as the most difficult or they create the most educational and social training problems. They are characterized by poor language development, receiving inadequate auditory feedback and always poor reading test which lead to an increase gap in vocabulary growth. They also face challenges in completing sentences, construction of words and are known for their inconsistency in word formation.

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There have been so many factors attributed to the ineffectiveness of teaching Auditory impaired learners. Among which are lack of trained personnel, inadequate funding, lack of appropriate instructional materials, poor teaching methodology, irrelevant curriculum etc.

The issue of methodology however is of immense importance because it is seen as the overall strategy and means adopted by the teacher to carry out his job effectively as the teacher plays a very major role is disseminating knowledge. A method in a Layman’s language can be described as a way of doing something i.e. the system or orderlines that can be adopted to making teaching effective. Teachers must consider three (3) important aspects before choosing methods. These are cognitive, affective and psychomotor domain of the learners. Therefore, methods must be chosen based on the specific criteria. As such as individual skills, students capabilities and exceptional learning outcomes (Stella Y. Erinoso 2000).

Some of the methods that are used in teaching regular schools especially in Nigeria are:

  1. Project method
  2. Discussion method
  3. Learning method
  4. Dramatization method
  5. Peer tutoring method
  6. Field trip method
  7. Discovery method
  8. Laboratory method
  9. Syndicate discussion etc.

(R.A Alani et al 2005, Fageyinbo 2005, Nwanyawu O. J 1999, Oludipe Daniel 2006).

In teaching auditory impaired learner or learner with any form of disability, special method will be required. For the auditory impaired learners, methods suitable which appealed to their senses with exception to the sense of hearing are highly needed. All the above listed methods are more suitable for teaching regular students with exception to dramatisation method. This is based on the fact that Nigeria as a country is developing and does not have in every state the scientific and technological teaching aid to help special learners. Dramatization therefore can be adopted especially when auditory impaired learners are integrated into regular schools.

The key word in dramatization is “Drama” which is derived from the Greek word “Dran” which means “to do”, it also connotes Action or deed (Agoro, 2001) i.e. Drama is doing. Dramatization method therefore is one that has to do with movement, actions. It draws fully upon the resource of language. It provides a medium through which individual ca express their ideas and reaction to the impression he/she receive and by repressing them learn to evaluate them. It also helps examine what a learner thinks or feel. Through it, imaginative observation is stimulated and deepened (Ibrahim Salamatu, 2000).

This method is basically a non-verbal communication method that entails the following:

  1. Language of the face (facial expression)
  2. Body language which includes gestures, space and motion language.
  3. Language of time.

It is also referred to as simulation, games and role playing method and takes the form of miming (acting without words) playlet (short play performed to express and action) which does not need elaborate preparations for a full play, role plying (the act of acting out specific role(s) as performed by a part of the society.

In relation to the auditory impaired, it is referred to as a total communication method which is a philosophy of educating the deaf child which is that advocates the use of any and all means of communication to provide unlimited opportunity to develop language competence. Included are the following: speech amplification (hearing aids), signing, finger spelling, pantomime, reading, writing, picture and any other possible means f converging ideas, language and vocabulary. (Riekehoy Lothie 1993).

When used in teaching auditory impaired children this method will among many things help:

  1. Develop them morally, intellectually, physically, socially for a better life in the society.
  2. Create in the children an act of self confidence.
  3. Make the lesson meaningful real and concrete.
  4. Help the learners develop broad minds about some issues since they will understand thoroughly the proper use of it.
  5. Provide pupils opportunities to develop their vocabulary and improve their ability to express themselves.
  6. Help the students develop some social skills such as tolerance, co-operation and politeness.

Furthermore, it is best suited because auditory impaired learners cannot hear, therefore, any verbal communication will be meaningless; because they require a method in which actions will of necessity speak louder than voice.

Therefore, Dramatization method gives learners a clear picture of what is being taught, encourages them to develop skills of self-help, arouses their natural ability, build positive relationship with their class-mate and most importantly the purpose of learning is well achieved


1.2 Statement Of The Problem

Education in Nigeria is supposed to provide equal opportunity for all and sundry. This however is not happening especially among exceptional children as a large percentage of them could be seen during school hours begging for alms at strategic places within the society. This research work concentrate on how can this be reduced, and how they can be taught without segregating them in our community.

Therefore, the following issues will be looked into

  1. Learning difficulties encountered by auditory impaired learners.
  2. The issues of methodology and how it affects teaching and learning.
  3. The use of dramatization method in teaching auditory impaired learners or students.
  4. How effective dramatization method is in teaching and learning the auditory impaired learners.

1.3 Purpose Of The Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate and examine:

  1. The level of Education acquired by auditory impaired learners.
  2. Their distorted Educational goals
  3. The use of dramatization methods in teaching them to enhance their language competence and above all achieve their proposed Education goals

1.4 Significance Of The Study

This study will be of great importance because it:

  1. Aims at providing purposeful Education for learners with auditory impairment.
  2. Exposes teachers to variety of methods used in the teaching.
  3. Shows the importance of dramatization method in teaching auditory impaired learners.
  4. Provides information that could be helpful in improving teaching and learning of auditory impaired learners.
  5. Would be of immeasurable help to the curriculum developers and writers on teaching methodology.

1.5 Delimitation Of The Study.

The research was carried out in Ijebu Ode Local Government area of Ogun state and the case study was the “school for children with special needs”, Oke Aje Road, Ijebu Ode.


1.6 Limitation Of The Study

This research was limited because of the following reasons:

  1. Lack of varieties of special schools within the area of the study
  2. Inadequate time
  3. Financial constraints
  4. Wide scope of research work.

1.7 Research Questions

  1. Are there various methods available in the teaching and learning of auditory impaired learners?
  2. How effective or ineffective is Dramatization method in teaching auditory impaired learners?
  3. Does the use or lack of a particular method affect the learner’s communication skills?
  4. Is Dramatization method effective for teaching of auditory impaired learners in all subjects areas?
  5. Does the use of Dramatization method help the auditory impaired learners perform above average?

1.8 Definition Of Terms

Education:

The overall development of all aspect of an individual’s life. i.e. the cognitive, affective and psychomotor to help and individual become a better person in the society.

Special Education:

An aspect of formal Education i.e. schooling which is centered on people that are either handicapped or disabled.

Auditory Impaired:

A situation where an individual cannot hear partially or not hear at all.

Method:

A particular way or form a teacher adopts to teach learners.

Dramatization Method:

A method of teaching which involves non-verbal communication, and is centered on activities that will arouse the interest of the learners.


The Use Of Dramatization Method In Teaching Auditory Impaired Learners: A Study of Selected Special Schools


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