The Influence Of Domestic Violence On Academic Performance On Secondary School Students

Project and Seminar Material for Education

The Influence Of Domestic Violence On Academic Performance On Secondary School Students


This research work was carried out to examine the consequences of domestic violence on the performance of school children. The research methodology utilizes descriptive statistics with simple numbers and percentages in the analysis and synthesizing of primary sources of data collected via questionnaire, as well as diverse literature on the area of study. However, the findings revealed that commitment by parents; caregivers and teachers in carrying out their responsibilities seem to be on the decline. The study further exposes some inherent challenges and abuses faced by learners in unsuitable living conditions. The implications of such situations are that learning institution should ascertain possible ways of liberating the affected learner and educate the parents, caregivers and teachers on the negative effects of perpetuating domestic violence. It is therefore, recommended that, Government should establish and fund counselling centres at the community, and Local Government levels and employ professional counsellors to help victims and perpetrators of domestic violence.

Table of Content

Chapter One:


  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Statement of the problem
  • 1.3 Objective of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Hypothesis of the Study
  • 1.6 Significance of the study
  • 1.7 Scope of the study
  • 1.8 Limitation of the study
  • 1.9 Definition of terms
  • 1.10 Organizations of the study

Chapter Two:

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Empirical Review

Chapter Three:

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Population of the study
  • 3.3 Sample size determination
  • 3.4 Sample size selection technique and procedure
  • 3.5 Research Instrument and Administration
  • 3.6 Method of data collection
  • 3.7 Method of data analysis
  • 3.8 Validity of the study
  • 3.9 Reliability of the study
  • 3.10 Ethical consideration

Chapter Four:

Data Presentation and Analysis

  • 4.1 Data Presentation
  • 4.2 Analysis of Data
  • 4.3 Answering Research Questions

Chapter Five:

Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation

  • 5.1 Summary
  • 5.2 Conclusion
  • 5.3 Recommendation
  • References

Chapter One


1.1 Background of the Study

Domestic violence is assuming national and international attention (Amnesty International 1995). It is a type of violence that is prevalent in many homes, and the World over. It is a form of violence that occurs in the form of defilement, assault, sexual harassment, and rape or battering, child abuse, for example denial of right, necessities and opportunities, threatening patterns of communication such as insults, harassment, neglectful lack of action.
Traditionally, in Nigeria, as in many other African countries, the beating of wives and children is widely sanctioned as a form of discipline (UNICEF, 2001). Therefore, in beating their-children parents believe they are instilling discipline in them, much the same way as in husbands beating their wives, who are regarded like children to be prone to indiscipline which must be curbed. This is especially so when the woman is economically dependent on the man. The society is basically patriarchal and women’s place within the scheme is decidedly subordinate. Domestic violence therefore functions as a means of enforcing conformity with the role of a woman within customary society. It therefore does not matter if the woman is economically dependent or not, her position, like that of the children is subordinate. Violence against women in the home is generally regarded as belonging to the private sphere in Nigeria and is therefore shielded from outside scrutiny. A culture of silence reinforces the stigma attached to the victim rather than condemning the perpetrator of such crimes (afrolNews, 2007).

Project alert (2001), in a survey on violence against women conducted interviews with women working in the markets and other places of work and girls and young women in secondary schools and universities, in Lagos state, Nigeria. 64.4% of 45 women interviewed in the work place said they had been beaten by a partner (boyfriend or husband), 56.6% of 48 interviewed market woman admitted experiencing such violence. Similar interviews carried out in Oyo state and other parts of Nigeria, yielded similar results. The incidence of domestic violence is high. In a study carried out by Obi and Ozumba (2007), on the factors associated with domestic violence, in South East, Nigeria, 70% of respondents reported abuse in their family with 92% of the victims being female partners and the remaining 8% being male. The common forms of abuse reported were shouting at a partner (93%), slapping or pushing (77%) and punching and kicking (40%). It is however disturbing to note that many women do not know if they had been abused or not (afrolNews, 2007). This could be due to the acceptance of some abusive behaviour as ‘normal’. Oyediran and Isugo, (2005), in a study of women’s perception of wife-beating in Nigeria, found that 64.4% and 50.4% of ever married and unmarried women, respectively, expressed consent for wife beating. Reports in the print and electronic media reveal vicious attacks on women by intimate partners in different forms such as ‘acid bath’, rape, beatings, some of which sometimes result in the death of the victim. Many victims do not report for fear of reprisal from abusers or the belief that the police and the judicial system cannot help. The police are also reported to frequently dismiss complaints of domestic violence as a ‘private matter’. According to Cusack et al (1999), most forms of violence inflicted upon women and children in Ghana by persons known to them or in some cases by strangers are considered a “private matter” and given no name or value. In everyday life, we see our relationships in a variety of circumstances. According to Cussack et al (1999), violence is a forceful way of getting something from someone. It is also living with someone and being forced to do things you do not understand and things that hurt. Violence refers to those actions that have a harmful physical (intentional infliction of pain on an individual) or mental effect (forced to do things that cause displeasure) on the individual. Physical violence can be perceived from five themes. They are;

1.2 Statement of the Problem

Interaction with some teachers in schools in Chanchaga reveals a growing trend towards violence and brutality towards students from their parents and homes. Often this violence plays out in other forms towards fellow students. In 2004, for instance a fourteen year old JSS student was arrested for raping another classmate. Further investigation revealed that the perpetrator of this crime had suffered domestic violence. Families are pre-occupied with the pressures of daily living to the extent that some homes are witnessing indiscipline among students. In one of the Nigerian Daily Papers in 2012, a fifteen year old JSS student was reported to have beaten his father mercilessly to an unconscious stage for failing to pay his school fees. The propensity for students to be violent is also in part influenced by the domestic ecology. From preliminary discussion with some teachers within selected schools within lugbe, it was noted by these researchers that some students had the tendency of acting out violently, showing disrespect to teachers and often using abusive words. While many of the schools apparently had systems in place to respond to these behaviours, aspect of these behaviours of students seems to have been condoned in some cases by the same parents.

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The main objectives of the study were to:

  1. Find out the possible causes of domestic violence.
  2. Find out the effects of domestic violence on the school-going children
  3. Suggest ways of eliminating or reducing the occurrence of domestic violence.

1.4 Research Questions

The main research questions were:

  1. What are the possible causes of domestic violence in Lugbe ?
  2. What are the effects of domestic violence on school students within area?
  3. What can be done to reduce domestic violence?

1.5 Hypothesis of the Study

Ho: there is no significant relationship between domestic violence and student academic performance

Hi: there is a significant relationship between domestic violence and student academic performance

1.6 Significance of the Study

The problem of domestic violence is a national issue, and may not be limited to the area in which the study was carried out. The study among others will bring home to policy markers on the need to implement all kinds of laws relating to the rights of children especially those relating to violence emanating from the home. Again the study will bring to the knowledge of those adults who take the law into their own hands and inflict violent acts on children to be careful of the repercussion of their actions on the life of the adolescent. Finally, the study will create awareness among, opinion leaders and educational authority on the effects of domestic violence on the child and its implications to the Nigerian Society.

1.7 Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is based on the influence of domestic violence on academic performance on secondary school students. The area of the research (study) is Government secondary school Lugbe, Airport road Abuja.

The research work will be limited to the analysis based on the questionnaire administered, and the relevant text (literature). Other limitation of the study is inability of the researcher to cover the entire population of the study.

1.8 Limitation of the Study

During the process and course of this research, a number of problems were encountered, which included the following:

  1. Time, finance, and access to books records of the organization and journals, but as much as possible, objectivity was observed.
  2. Due to the uniqueness and the controversial nature of the research, we have had to be very subtle in eliciting information so as to avoid prejudicing or giving our blessing to any claim or opinion as they stand publicly. Even then, total cooperation in obtaining information was not possible.
  3. Relevant books and literature were not readily available in the school library and the organization was consulted.
  4. Where some journals, papers, articles were seen, they were so much of foreign nature that the domestic environment of Nigeria was not depicted.

The tense academic environment was a bi-constraint to the research because we had to execute the project and yet contend with the continuous assessment of the policy of the school.

1.9 Definitions of Terms

(1) Domestic:

Activities carried out within the house.

(2) Violence:

This implies the period of severe difficulty or danger.

(3) Academic Performance:

The outcome of education or the extent to which a student has achieved his/her educational goals.

(4) Consequences:

It is the outcome of a particular event

1.10 Organizations of the Study

The chapter one consist of the introductory part of the study which includes the study background, the statement of the research problem, the study objective and scope of the study.

The second chapter is a critical review of other literatures relevant to the study and its objectives including the theoretical framework for the study. While the third chapter is methods of data collection, sampling and data analysis used in conducting the study. The fourth chapter centres around the research findings including an analysis of how it relates to previous findings. The fifth chapter consists of the summary of findings, conclusion and recommendations base on the study objectives.

Chapter Five

Summary of Findings, Conclusion and Recommendation

5.1 Introduction

This chapter is concerned with summary of the findings, appropriate conclusion and recommendation to the identified problems from the findings.

5.2 Summary

From the forgoing discussion and analysis it is clear that Domestic violence interferes with children ability to function in school and thus, leads to a decline in their academic performance. Also majority of children who witness domestic violence carry over this exposure to their school life and exhibit a range of disruptive behavioural problems ranging from increase in aggression, social anxieties, and difficulties concentrating, among others.
Moreover, beside decline in school performance the children usually complain of a number of discomforts such as headaches, diarrhoea, etc. which is capable of interfering with their academic performance. Children’s attention span is distorted by the need to rescue victims of Domestic Violence and at the same time keeping the Domestic Violence a family secret. Children from violent homes are sometimes stigmatized by their peers. Observing Domestic Violence on their own parents’ causes’ trauma that may become severe enough to get to Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD).This is a situation where a counselling psychologist may be required to save the learner especially on academic problems and poor functioning as stated by Terr, (1991).

5.2 Conclusion

The following conclusions were drawn from the forgoing discussion:

  1. The school child becomes psychologically traumatized when he/she experiences violence.
  2. The child’s academic work dwindles when he/she experiences violence
  3. The child becomes aggressive when he/she experiences domestic violence.
  4. The child feels to avenge violence.

5.2 Recommendations

The following recommendations or suggestions are made to reduce the impact of Domestic Violence on the performance of School children:

  1. The cognitive capacity of a learner`s mind (i.e. the process of assimilation, accommodation and equilibration) is functional when home is peaceful. Therefore, parents should try and iron out differences amicably without causing direct or indirect harm to the helpless minor/child/learner.
  2. Both parents and educators should watch out for signs and symptoms of abuse emanating from Domestic Violence. Early intervention by school counsellors and/or psychologists, in the form of guidance and counselling, is a necessity to help learners cope with effects of Domestic Violence.
  3. The teacher and the school counsellor as well as parents should provide a caring, compassionate, supportive environment for the school child and to rebuild trust that has probably been destroyed by the abuser.
  4. Teachers should allow learners to express their feelings in the best way possible, for example, through writing, painting, and toy usage.
  5. Members of the community should inform the Police about Domestic Violence cases as a means of safeguarding children in dysfunctional homes. Perpetrators of emotional abuse should be reprimanded or should be put to book early before they cause more harm.
  6. Teachers, school counsellors and parents should know their limitations and Obligations in handling issues of abuse. They are required legally to report suspected and eye witnessed abuse and victimization to the law enforcers.
    Counsellors’ more especially are required to handle abuse cases with care.
  7. The Ministry of Education and Sports should provide every school with at least counsellors or para-counsellors to encourage children discuss their personal problems in confidence.
  8. Government should create awareness on the harmful effects of domestic violence especially on the children academic performance.
  9. The NGOs who advocate for the women and children’s rights should go to the grassroots where the actual problems lie and sensitize the family on the effects of domestic violence.
  10. Both perpetrators and victims need counselling.
  11. Love, trust, tolerance and faithfulness should run through family life.

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Frequently Asked Questions

How does domestic violence affect student performance?

Students’ performance and class attendance are all related to their mental and physical state, which in turn could be influenced by family relations, including domestic violence (Dahlquis 10). Students who experience domestic violence are often fearful, stressed, depressed, angry,

How does violence affect classroom behavior in children?

Key words: violence, children, classroom behavior Exposure to violent home and community environments, as well as injury due to violence, contribute to both reduced academic progress and increased disruptive or unfocused classroom behavior for children, adolescents, and teenagers.

What is my work about domestic violence?

My artwork examines how domestic violence impacts the lives and education of high school students, together with other young people and how they suffer during this period. My work explores the varying relationships between violent homes and community environments.

What is considered domestic violence?

Domestic violence can sometimes be attributed to only physical abuse, but it can also be emotional. It is a behavioral pattern that involves violence by one individual against the other in a domestic environment, for instance, a family setting, marriage, or just living together.

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