Domestic Violence And Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Self Concept Among Early Adolescence

Project and Seminar Material for Psychology

Domestic Violence And Locus Of Control As Predictors Of Self Concept Among Early Adolescence


This study investigated domestic violence and locus of control as a predicators of self-concept among early adolescent. Two hundred (200) adolescents (61 males and 39 females) drawn randomly from the study area as the population of the study. Locus of control scale (LCS) and domestic violence records (DVR) were used for data collection. It was hypothesized that locus of control, domestic violence and adolescent self-concept as a predicator of early adolescent self-concept. Results of the analysis showed that Locus of controls, domestic violence are not significant predictors of cognitive and effective adolescent self-concept. Implications and Limitations of the study were discussed and suggestions made for further studies.

Table of Content

  • Title Page
  • Approval Page
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgment
  • Abstract
  • Table of Content

Chapter One


  • 1.1 Background of the Study
  • 1.2 Statement of the Problem
  • 1.3 Purpose of the Study
  • 1.4 Relevance of the Study

Chapter Two

Review of Literature

  • 2.1 Theoretical Review of Literature
  • 2.2 Empirical Review
  • 2.3 Hypothesis (Directional)
  • 2.4 Operational Definition of Terms

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Setting
  • 3.3 Participants
  • 3.4 Sampling Techniques
  • 3.5 Instruments
  • 3.6 Procedures
  • 3.7 Statistical Analysis

Chapter Four


  • 4.1 Hypothesis Testing

Chapter Five

Discussion of Findings

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • 5.3 Limitations of Study
  • Reference
  • Appendix

Chapter One


Background of the Study

Domestic violence is a problem of epidemic proportions with far-reaching consequences for individual victims, their children and their communities. Domestic violence results in death, serious injury, and chronic medical and mental health issues for victims, their children, the perpetrators, and others. The lethal outcome of domestic violence is tragically evident in media reports that describe a steady stream of homicides against victims, their children, family or friends, those who are trying to protect them, innocent bystanders, and perpetrators. (Hamberger, Saunders & Honey, 2012).

Locus of control refers to an expectation that a behavior will have the desired effect, and that these expectations are significant indicators of what the person has done (Rotter, 1954; Rossier et al., 2015). In other words, locus of control is related to reinforcements, i.e. the results obtained are attributed to one’s own behavior or to some other outside sources. Some people suppose that there is a relationship between their own behavior and reinforcements, while others believe that there is no such relationship and assume that reinforcements are controlled by an external power. Those that believe there is a relationship between their behaviors and reinforcements or consequences are said to have an internal locus of control; those that believe that there is no such relationship are said to have an external locus of control (Rotter, 1954; Twenge et al., 2004; Oliver et al., 2006). People with an external locus of control think that reinforcements are a function of fate, luck, or powerful others (Rotter, 1954). Believing they have no control over the environment, externals are reported to be inactive, have low self-esteem, and not trusting of others (Silvester et al., 2012; Loosemore & Lam, 2014). These people also feel generally incompetent, passive, skeptical, and dogmatic, and as a result they have higher levels of anxiety, stress, and depression (Yeşilyaprak, 2010; Ashby et al., 2012; Yağışan et al., 2007; Baydoğan & Dağ, 2008). Moreover, those with an external locus of control have problems with self-perception and view themselves negatively (Yağışan et al., 2017). With an increase in depression and schizophrenia, their level of self-esteem is also lowered (Goodman et al., 1982). People with an internal locus of control view themselves as responsible for the consequences of their actions and think that they have control over reinforcements (Rotter, 1954). They are reported to be successful, effective, aggressive, enterprising, trusting, and independent (Silvester et al., 2002; Yeşilyaprak, 2000; Loosemore & Lam 2004). In addition, they are more successful academically, superior in a competitive context, and more socially active (Diesterhaft & Gerken, 1983; Anderson et al., 2005). Moreover, it was argued that internals have a positive self-perception (Silvester et al., 2002; Loosemore & Lam, 2004), feel they are healthier (Ozolins & Stenstrom, 2003), have better coping skills (Elise et al., 1998), and have more internal motivation (Fazey & Fazey, 2001). Self-perception is one’s own point of view about self, shaped by feedback from others. Reinforcements and attributions, along with experiences and interpretation of the environment also play a role (Shavelson et al., 2016). Including self-esteem, self-perception, or self-concept, can also be thought of as an organized and learned response pattern, which is obtained and sustained with one’s responses to several impulses in the environmental context (Crain et al., 1994). The behavioral approach argues that self-concept is composed of academic, social, family, competency, physical, and emotional dimensions, and that these interacting dimensions embody a general self-concept. Thus, self-concept, theoretically, becomes a feature at the intersection of these dimensions (Bracken & Howell, 1991). In the literature, self-concept and several of its components (academic self, self-esteem, etc.) are generally handled together with a person’s academic and performance aspects. In this respect self-concept is associated with motivation, career aspirations, educational achievement, psychic performance, and mental and psychical health (Wigfield & Karpathian, 2011; Hay et al., 2008; Özbay et al., 2002; Baumeister et al., 2003; Marsh et al., 2005; Marsh & Craven, 2006; Marsh et al., 2006; Wang, 2006; Brunner et al., 2008). When considered from a social perspective, self-concept has a relationship with a person’s social capabilities and success, and the duration of interpersonal relationships. People with a positive self-concept are more popular, collaborative, self-assertive, talkative, and dominant. Those with a negative selfconcept are silent and introverted. Moreover, a negative self-concept is associated with depression, while a positive self-concept is associated with happiness and good feelings (Comer et al., 2016; Keefe & Berndt, 2006; Neuringer & Wandke, 2016; Hay et al., 2018; Baumeister et al., 2003). During an extensive search of the literature we did not find any study on the relationship between conflict resolution approaches and self-concept, yet the studies mentioned above suggest there may be a relationship between self-concept and the behaviors displayed in interpersonal relationships. All these findings indicate that people determine the behaviors to use in interpersonal processes in accordance with the expectations of their consequences and their self-perception. From this point of view, the purpose of the present study was to determine the roles of self-perception and locus of control in the choice of conflict resolution approaches. Rather than the resolution approaches reported in the literature, which focus directly on the results of the communication process or interests of the involved parties, the present study concentrated on the conflict resolution approaches related to mediation and communication processes. Lefcourt (2006) also points out that parents are in a prime position to facilitate or hinder the contingency learning process. He believed warm supportive parents help to make children feel safe and secure enough to explore their environments and learn how their behavior connects to outcomes across a variety of situations; internal control expectancies can develop and generalize from such experiences. In contrast, parents who neglect or reject their children may be more likely to produce anxiety that interferes with learning connections between behavior and outcomes and constricts the number and quality of children’s interactions with the physical and social environments.

Statement of the Problem

Domestic violence has many names: wife abuse, marital assault, woman battery, spouse abuse, wife beating, conjugal violence, intimate violence, battering, partner abuse, for example. Sometimes these terms are used interchangeably to refer to the problem. Rotter describes “locus of control” as “the degree to which individuals believe the things that happen to them are due to internal versus external factors” (Cooper, Okamura & McNeil, 1995). If individuals believe that they have no control over the circumstances of their lives (external locus of control), they will act according to such beliefs. This study therefore intend to answer the question: What significant relationships exist among the variables locus of control, self-concept and domestic violence? For this study the investigator considered the following questions as supporting and contributing to exploration of the general problem. What significant differences exist between external locus of control and self-concept? What significant differences exist between domestic violence and adolescence self-concept?

Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of domestic violence and locus of control as a predicator of self-concept among early adolescent. Also the study will investigate the role of domestic violence on adolescent self-concept.

Relevance of the Study

Counsellors shares the responsibility of contributing to the requisite body of knowledge necessary to equip young adolescent on the implication of domestic violence. This study will provide unique information on the relationships among the variables self-concept, locus of control and domestic violence. Additional information about the impact of specific demographic factors upon this particular population will contribute to increased comprehension among early adolescent. Research is a responsibility of professional counsellors. The study will also be of significant to scholars and researchers who intend to embark on a study in a similar topic as the study will serve as a reference point to further studies. The study will also be of importance to student teachers, academia’s, lecturers and the general public as the study will contribute to the pool of existing literature on the subject matter and also contribute to knowledge.

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