Domestic Violence And Its Effect On Pregnant Women

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Domestic Violence And Its Effect On Pregnant Women


Abstract


Violence against women perpetrated by husbands occurs in every society, but its prevalence and tolerance vary from country to country. Studies demonstrate that violence during pregnancy is more common in developing countries than developed countries. To identify the effect of domestic violence on pregnancy outcomes among rural and urban women. A descriptive correlational design was utilized for the study. This study was conducted at maternal and child health centers for antenatal care at Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom state. A purposive sample of 240 pregnant women were recruited in the study. Four instruments were developed and used; 1) A structured interviewing questionnaire, 2) Hurting, Insulting and Threatening with harm screening tool (HITS); 3) A domestic violence screening scale 4) Edinburgh postnatal depression scale. The results showed that the proportion of rural women who had experienced physical violence was significantly higher than that of the urban women (41.7% versus 24.2%, respectively; P<0.05). Sexual violence was significantly higher among urban women than rural women (31.7% versus 11.6%, respectively; P<0.05). There were no statistically significant differences in pregnancy outcomes among rural and urban women related to domestic violence. The study concluded that women are exposed to different forms of domestic violence during pregnancy. These forms of violence have an impact on the pregnancy outcomes such as abortions, low-birth weight, pre-term delivery, and postpartum depression among others. Based on the results of the present study recommended the need to design education program for both the men and women regarding the effect of domestic violence on pregnancy outcomes.


Table of Contents


Chapter One:

Introduction

  • 1.1 Background of the study
  • 1.2 Problem statement
  • 1.3 Objectives of the study
  • 1.4 Research questions
  • 1.5 Significance of the study
  • 1.6 Scope and limitations of the study
  • 1.7 Organization of the study

Chapter Two

Literature Review

  • 2.1 Conceptual Framework
  • 2.2 Theoretical Framework
  • 2.3 Review of Empirical Studies

Chapter Three

Research Methodology

  • 3.1 Research Design
  • 3.2 Research Setting
  • 3.3 sample
  • 3.4 Inclusion criteria
  • 3.5 Data collection instruments
  • 3.6 Validity & reliability of instrument
  • 3.7 Pilot Study
  • 3.8 Field work
  • 3.9 Statistical Design
  • 3.10 Ethical Consideration

Chapter Four

Results and Discussion

  • 4.1 Results
  • 4.2 Discussion

Chapter Five

Conclusion and Recommendations

  • 5.1 Conclusion
  • 5.2 Recommendations
  • References

Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Domestic violence against women is one of the most pervasive abuses of human rights in the world, that lie in the spheres of those who are interested in the study of women’s health and her rights. Violence against women is the barrier of women’s empowerment and hinders the equal participation in society. However, they often go unnoticed and undocumented and therefore unresolved. Violence during pregnancy may threaten not only a woman well-being but that of her unborn child. Among women who had ever been pregnant six percent were hit, slapped, kicked or subjected to some other form of physical violence (Bailey, 2012).

Moreover domestic violence known as spousal abuse or domestic violence (IPV), which is defined as “behavior within an intimate relationship that causes physical, sexual, or psychological harm, including acts of physical aggression, sexual coercion, psychological abuse and controlling behaviors’” (Audi, 2012). In addition, the World Health Organization (WHO) showed that, the prevalence of physical or sexual, or both type of violence varied from fifteen percent to seventy one percent in different countries. Physical injury, psychological problems and complications of pregnancy are some of the health consequences that result from violence inflicted on pregnant women by their intimate male partners (WHO, 2011). Urquia et al., 2011, was reported that un-attention has been given to domestic violence during pregnancy as global public health problem due to its adverse health consequences. An understanding of the effect of a partner’s violence against a pregnant woman could have important reproductive health implications with early identification. It could also help in shaping future intervention programs. Pregnancy provides an opportunity to screen for domestic violence since pregnant women make routine antenatal visits. On the other hand, violence against women perpetrated by husbands occur in every society, but its prevalence and tolerance vary from country to country. Studies demonstrate that violence during pregnancy is more common in developing countries than developed countries and the consequence of domestic violence during pregnancy ranges from financial hardships and decreased intimacy to high rates of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality (Devries et al., 2010). Violence during pregnancy had a higher rates of preterm labor and intrauterine growth retardation than women without a history of violence, also domestic violence during pregnancy is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes such as low birth weight, spontaneous abortion, bleeding during pregnancy, and higher neonatal deaths (Berenson et al., 2010) Domestic violence during pregnancy is a serious public health issue which threatens fetal and maternal health, so the effects of domestic violence on women’s health are increasing attention from local and international policy makers, and from the healthcare community, this is due to an increased awareness of the prevalence of violence. Also the government has recognized the need to increase the awareness, understanding, and recognition of domestic violence to encourage victims to come forward (Shah, 2010). Researches has shown that nurses feel inadequately prepared to deal with victims of domestic violence and that a gap in practice and knowledge experience requires support and education, so antenatal care is very important for early detection of domestic violence, and is providing a suitable setting for addressing issues of violence. Asking questions may assist women to disclose their experiences of violence to health professionals and enable access to additional support and care, including community, legal and police support services (Flach et al., 2011).


1.2 Problem Statement

Violence against women, committed by an intimate partner, is an important public health and human rights issue. In recent years, attention has focused also on domestic violence during pregnancy due to its prevalence, adverse health consequences and intervention potential. So, an understanding of the effect of a partner’s violence against a pregnant woman could have important reproductive health implications with early identification. Pregnancy provides an opportunity to screen for domestic violence since pregnant women make routine visits during this period. Therefore, it is critical to explore the impact of violence on pregnancy outcomes in pregnant women.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

The main objective of this study is to identify the effect of domestic violence on pregnant Women.

Specifically, the objectives of this study were:

  1. To assess the prevalence of domestic violence during pregnancy.
  2. To examine the effects of domestic violence on pregnancy outcomes.
  3. To investigate the differences between domestic violence among rural and urban women.

1.4 Research Questions

  1. What are the effects of domestic violence on pregnancy out comes?
  2. Are there a differences between domestic violence among rural and urban women?

1.5 Significance of the Study

This work investigates the prevalence and types of Domestic Violence among pregnant women living in Nigeria to inform policy, practice and future research. This study will also be of benefits to the educational sector, as it will help serve as a research material for academics, researchers and students that will be carrying out research related to this study.


1.6 Scope and Limitations of the Study

The scope of the study is the domestic violence and its effect on pregnant women. This study was carried out in Uyo metropolis, Akwa Ibom state. Questionnaires would be used to generate the required information needed to test the hypotheses formulated.

However, in the course of this research, the following constraints were encountered thus:

Non-availability of enough resources (finance): A work of this nature is very tasking financially, money had to be spent at various stages of the research such resources which may aid proper carrying out of the study were not adequately available.

Time factor: The time used in carrying out the research work is relatively not enough to bring the best information out of it. However, I hope that the little that is contained in this study will go a long way in solving many greater problems.


1.7 Organization of the Study

This research work is organized in five chapters, for easy understanding, as follows;

  • Chapter one is concern with the introduction, which consist of the (overview, of the study), historical background, statement of problem, objectives of the study, research hypotheses, significance of the study, scope and limitation of the study, definition of terms and historical background of the study.
  • Chapter two highlights the theoretical framework on which the study is based, thus the review of related literature.
  • Chapter three deals on the research design and methodology adopted in the study.
  • Chapter four concentrate on the data collection and analysis and presentation of finding.
  • Chapter five gives summary, conclusion, and recommendations made of the study.

Chapter Five


Conclusion and Recommendations

5.1 Conclusion

The study was concluded that, women in the study sample are exposed to different forms of domestic violence during pregnancy. These forms of violence have an impact on the pregnancy outcomes such as abortions, low-birth weight, pre-term delivery, and postpartum depression among others. Also, there are a statistically significant differences between rural and urban women in physical and sexual violence and a significantly higher proportion of rural women believed that going out without telling their partners or neglecting care for their children could justify domestic violence, while a significantly higher proportion of urban women believed that argues with the partner and refusing sex could justify domestic violence. So the main duty of the health-care providers to actively screening for these mothers during pregnancy to help on reduction of maternal and fetal complications.


5.2 Recommendations

Based on the study results the researchers were recommended the following:

  1. Organizing training program for nurses about early screening of intimate partner violence. Asking about intimate partner violence should be a part of routine antenatal care for early detection and identification of cases.
  2. Supportive advocacy should be a prioritized intervention for community health services.
  3. Designing and implementing an educational program to both the men and the women regarding the effect of domestic violence on pregnancy out comes.

Domestic Violence And Its Effect On Pregnant Women


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