Domestic Airport Terminal Building

Project and Seminar Material for Architecture

Domestic Airport Terminal Building

Chapter One


Transportation has remained one of the most vital factors that influence the development of a nation. The credibility of this statement has been proven over the centuries, that if one decides to take a critical look at earlier civilizations, from the time of early Egyptian civilization to the current civilized world, one will discover that many of the great feats achieved during these civilizations would have been impossible without one form of transportation or the other.

By way of definition; transportation (or transport) is the movement of people, animals and goods from one location to another. Modes of transport include air, rail, road, water, cable, pipeline and space. The field can be divided into infrastructure, vehicles and operations. Transportation is important since it enables trade between people, which in turn establishes civilizations.

Transport infrastructure consists of the fixed installations necessary for transport, including roads, railways, airways, waterways, canals and pipelines and terminals such as airports, railway stations, bus stations, warehouses, trucking terminals, refuelling depots (including fuelling docks and fuel stations) and seaports. Terminals may be used both for interchange of passengers and cargo and for maintenance.

Vehicles travelling on these networks may include automobiles, bicycles, buses, trains, trucks, people, helicopters and aircraft. Operations deal with the way the vehicles are operated and the procedures set for this purpose including financing, legalities and policies. In the transport industry, operations and ownership of infrastructure can be either public or private, depending on the country and mode.

Transportation can be broadly classified under three broad groups thus:

  1. Land transportation;
  2. Water transportation; and
  3. Air transportation.

Land transportation is the most common and dates back to the beginning of civilization. Land transportation can take various forms, which are dependent on the sophistication, stage of civilization and development, and on the technical stratum of the society in question. It can be by the use of animals (camels, mules, horses, dogs, etc.) or by use of machines such as wheelbarrows, carts, cars etc.

Similarly, water transportation dates back a long time as humanity can recall. Water transportation, as land transportation, has also been developed in complexity, technical superiority, and usage.

Air transportation has its origin in the 20th century. The superiority of air transport over the rest can be attributed the reason behind its progressive growth and preference as the safest modern mode of transportation.

1.1.0 Background To The Project

The airpot terminal is a building at an airport where passengers transfer between ground transportation and the facilities that allow them to board and disembark from the aircraft. Within the terminal, passengers purchase tickets, transfer their luggage, and go through security. The buildings that provide access to the airplanes (via gates) are typically called concoures. However, the terms terminals and concourses are used interchangably, depending on the configuration of the airport.

Smaller airports have one terminal while larger airports have several terminals and/or concourses. At small airports, the single terminal building typically serves all of the functions of a terminal and a concourse. Some larger airports have one terminal that is connected to multiple concourses via walkways, sky-bridges, or underground tunnels (such as Denver International Airport). Some larger airports have more than one

terminal, each with one or JohnmoreF.KennedyconcoursesAirport).Stillother larger(suchairports haveasmultipleNewterminalsYork‟s each of which incorporate the functions of a concourse (such as Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport).

According to Frommers, most airport terminals are built in a plain style, with the concrete boxes of the 1960s and ‟70s glass boxes in the ‟90s and ‟00s, with the best terminalsr,some,suchas makin

Baghdad International Airport, are monumental in stature, while others are considered architectural masterpieces, such as Terminal 1 at Charles de Gaulle Airport near Paris or Terminal 5 at New York‟s John. AFfew. areKennedydesignedtoreflectAirportthecultureofaparticular area, some examples being the terminal at Albuquerque International Sunport in New Mexico, which is designed in the Pueblo Revival Style popularized by architect John Gaw Meem, as well as the one at Bahiasde Huatulco International Airport in Huatulco, Oaxaca, Mexico, which features some palapas that are interconnected to form the airport terminal building.

Due to the rapid rise in popularity of passenger flight, many early terminals were built in the 1930s–1940s and reflected the popular art deco style architecture of the time. One such surviving example from 1940 is the Houston Municipal Airport Terminal. Early airport terminals opened directly onto the tarmac: passengers would walk or take a bus to their aircraft. This design is still common among smaller airports, and even many larger airports have “bus gates” to accommodate aircraft beyond the main terminal building.

1.2.0 Statement Of Architectural Problem

A functional airport passenger terminal is meant to ease the stress encountered by airpassengers during the process of air travel. Therefore the architectural problem of the project is how best to provide an aesthetically pleasant, efficient, economical, bigger and more modern domestic airport passenger terminal, with good flexibility and expansion capabilities, to replace the outdated and small existing airprot terminal at Makurdi for Federal Airports Authority of Nigeria (FAAN).

1.3.0 Aims

The primary aims/goals of the design are as follows:

  1. To provide/design a suitable passenger terminal building in the Makurdi Airport which would potray a good image of Benue State
  2. To provde a passenger terminal building as well as other auxilliary facilities with the necessary tools requisite for air transportation activities as well as upgrade the economic facet of Makurdi city.
  3. To ensure these facilities will streamline the productivity in the airport without interruption or interference from each other or any source; and
  4. To provide a design that will adequately contain all the kinds of functions and activities associated with air travel to be carried out in the airport which will be expanded for this purpose.

1.4.0 Objectives

The principal objective of this project is to provide Makurdi Airport with a ultra-modern, befitting and function passenger airport terminal building which has been badly absent since the construction of that airport and also to upgrade the landscape around it and prescribe other salient facilities which have been omitted.

In appreciation of the particular demands of the project, I opt;

  1. To situate the structure in an ideal location that easily catches eye sight from around the environment and can be easily accessible to staff, air travellers, as well as visitors;
  2. To ensure good road network that create easy flow of vehicular and human traffic;
  3. To consider the environmental consequences as far as they are not a detriment to the proposed development.
  4. To minimise costs by putting construction techniques, and employing materials within the level of technology that is commensurate with our national aspiration.
  5. To ensure flexibility and adaptability for future changes in use of facilities or space;
  6. To ensure efficient security within and around the facility premises;
  7. To ensure the terminal building, the parking lots and other auxilliary facilities are strategically placed for easy accessibilty from one to the others;

1.5.0 Research Methodology

The required information for proper planning and design of a domestic passenger terminal that will raise the quality and standard of the Makurdi Airport will be obtained through primary data; direct interviews with personnel or representatives of existing airports in Nigeria which basically are FAAN officials, porters on the airport grounds and locals residing around the airport vicinity, case studies, library research, and internet surfing. The emerging ideas and opinions or results are manually organized. On site physical survey will reveal the statistical data inherent of the site venue and will be gainfully utilized.

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