Distribution Of Thiaminase In Different Tissues Of Some Fish Species From Osu Reservoir

Project and Seminar Material for Biochemistry

Distribution Of Thiaminase In Different Tissues Of Some Fish Species From Osu Reservoir


Abstract


Thiaminase degrade thiamine into separate thiazole and pyrimidine moieties, an enzyme that cleaves vitamin B1 and are sporadically distributed among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. The excess thiaminase in fish tissues causes thiamine deficiency syndrome like neurological and cardiac disorder, it also causes reproductive disorder in fishes and finally leads to death. Thiaminase in human causes thiamine deficiency which leads to beriberi and Wernicke Korsakov syndrome or Wernicke paralysis, it also prevent the conversion of carbohydrate to glucose. Fishes rich in thiaminase are not good for human consumption because it leads to chronic thiamine deficiency.

This present study was carried out to determine the distribution, level and the effect of thiaminase in different tissues of some fish species. A total number of 21 tissues were extracted from 7 different fish species (Gills, gut and flesh i.e. 3 from each). In the tissue, Tilapia Zilli gut had the highest thiaminase activity (27.05±2.08) while Parachanna Africana gill had the lowest activity (0.09±0.12). Tilapia Zilli gut also have the highest specific activity (0.0058±0.0004) Parachanna Africana gill has the lowest specific activity (0.0000±0.0000). Clarias Gariepinus flesh has the highest protein concentration (14387.44±179.13) Hepsetus Odoe gut has the lowest protein concentration (791.28±13.33). Saroterodon Galilaeus species has the highest level of thiaminase activity (10.136ª) and Parachanna Obscura species has the lowest level of thiaminase activity (0.463ᵇ). Tilapia Zilli species has the highest specific activity of (0.0023ª) while Parachanna Africanna species has the lowest specific activity of (0.0002ᶜ).

Gut has the highest thiaminase activity of (11.315ª) while flesh has the lowest thiaminase activity of (1.916ᵇ). Gut also has the highest specific activity of (0.00304ª) and flesh also has the lowest specific activity of (0.00022ᵇ). Therefore, the significance of the study is that excess thiaminase degrades thiamin and causes thiamin deficiency in fishes which leads to various ailments in fish and finally leads to death.


Table Of Contents


  • Title page i
  • Certification page ii
  • Dedication iii
  • Acknowledgement iv
  • Abstract v
  • Table of content

Chapter One

  • 1.1 Introduction
  • 1.2 Literature Review
  • 1.2.1 History Of Thiaminase
  • 1.2.2 Classification
  • 1.2.3 Distribution And Occurrence
  • 1.2.4 Thiaminase Catalysis
  • 1.2.5 Thiaminase 1
  • 1.2.6 Thiaminase 11
  • 1.3 Fish Tissues
  • 1.3.1 Fish Gills
  • 1.3.2 Fish Flesh
  • 1.3.3 Fish Gut
  • 1.4 Fishes
  • 1.5 Fish Species
  • 1.5.1 Tilapia Zilli
  • 1.5.2 Hepsetus Odoe
  • 1.5.3 Parachanna Obscura
  • 1.5.4 Clarias Gariepinus
  • 1.5.5 Heterotis Niloticus
  • 1.5.6 Parachanna Africana
  • 1.5.7 Saroterodon Galilaeus

Chapter Two

  • 2.1 Materials
  • 2.1.1 Chemicals And Reagents
  • 2.1.2 Equipments
  • 2.2 Methods
  • 2.2.1 Preparation Of Buffer (Phosphate Buffe
  • 2.2.2 Homogenization Of Samples (Gills, Gut And Flesh)
  • 2.2.3 Filtration Using Cheese Cloth
  • 2.2.4 Centrifugation Of The Supernatant Extract
  • 2.2.5 Protein Determination
  • 2.2.6 Thiaminase Assay

Chapter Three

  • 3.1 Results
  • 3.1.1 Thiaminase Activity Table

Chapter Four

  • 4.1 Discussion Conclusion And Recommendation
  • 4.1.1 Discussion
  • 4.1.2 Conclusion
  • 4.1.3 Recommendation
  • References.

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Chapter Four


4.1 Discussion Conclusion and Recommendation

4.1.1 Discussion

Thiaminase is an enzyme that catalyse the cleavage of biologically active thiamine into its pyrimidine and thiazole ring moieties. This study revealed the thiaminase distribution in tissues of some fish species. Thiaminase activity range between (2.28-0.66) in flesh and between (5.99-0.09) in gill, it also ranged between (27.05-1.54) in gut. Highest activity of thiaminase was observed in Tilapia Zilli gut (27.05±2.08) and highest specific activity of thiaminase was observed in Tilapia Zilli gut (0.0058±0.0004) also, highest protein concentration of thiaminase was found in Clarias Gariepinus flesh (14387.44±179.13). However, the lowest thiaminase activity was found in Parachanna Africana gill (0.09±0.12) and lowest specific activity was found in Parachanna Africana gill (0.0000±0.0000), also the lowest protein concentration was found in Hepsetus Odoe gut (791.28±13.33).

4.1.1.1 Thiaminase Activity in Tissues of Fish Species

In the experimented tissues for thiaminase activity, it was observed that Tilapia zilli gut had the highest thiaminase activity (27.05±2.08) followed by Clarias gariepinus gill, Saroterodon galilaeus gill, Parachanna obscura gill, and Saroterodon galilaeus gut with the result (5.9±1.64), (5.53±0.56), (5.07±0.11) and (5.06±0.33) respectively. Parachanna africana gill had the lowest thiaminase activity compared to all other experimented tissues with the result (0.09±0.12).

4.1.1.2 Thiaminase Specific Activity in Fish Tissues

In the experimented tissues for thiaminase specific activity, Tilapia zilli gut was observed to have the highest thiaminase specific activity (0.0058±0.0004), next to it are Saroterodon Galileaus gut, Hepsetus odoe gut, Hepsetus odoe gill and Saroterodon Galileaus gill with the result (0.0032±0.0006), (0.0019±0.0003), (0.0011±0.0002) and (0.0010±0.0000) respectively. Parachanna Africana gill had the lowest thiaminase specific activity compared to all other experimented tissues with the result (0.0000±0.0000).

4.1.1.3 Protein Concentration of Tissues

In the experimented protein concentrations for the fish tissues, Clarias gariepinus flesh was observed to have the highest protein (14387.44±179.13), next to the highest are Clarias gariepinus gill, Parachanna obscura flesh, Parachanna obscura gut and Heterotis niloticus gut with the result (10711.98±32.65), (8749.8±44.75), (8098.57±381.19) and (8075.13±1008.14) respectively. Hepsetus odoe had the lowest protein concentration compared to all other experimented tissues with the result (791.28±13.33).

4.1.1.4 Thiaminase Activity in Fish Species

Saroterodon Galileaus species has the highest level of thiaminase activity (10.136ª) and Parachanna Obscura species has the lowest level of thiaminase activity (0.463ᵇ). Tilapia Zilli species has the highest specific activity of (0.0023ª) while Parachanna Africana species has the lowest specific activity of (0.0002ᶜ).

4.1.1.5 General Thiaminase Activity in Fish Tissues

Gut has the highest thiaminase activity of (11.315ª) while flesh has the lowest thiaminase activity of (1.916ᵇ). Gut also has the highest specific activity of (0.00304ª) and flesh also has the lowest specific activity of (0.00022ᵇ).


4.1.2 Conclusion

The study concluded that the gut of Tilapia Zilli contains high level of thiaminase. This may have medical implication in its consumption as a good source of high quality protein and it is therefore not good for human consumption.


4.1.3 Recommendation

I recommend that thiaminase rich fishes should not be included in our diet and if needs be, one must ensure it is well cooked for the complete removal of thiaminase.

Further research should be done on how to prevent excess thiaminase in fishes.

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