Dialectal Variation (A Case Study Of Ikere And Ijebu)

Project and Seminar Material for Linguistics and Communication

Dialectal Variation (A Case Study Of Ikere And Ijebu)


The work focuses on a comparative study of Ikere and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba language with a view to determining their linguistic status. The implication for the study was that the Ikere and Ijebu languages are dialects of Yoruba language.

The study concerned variations at the phonological level of both dialects. The theoretical frameworks employed for this work were both descriptive and theoretical. The phonological variations were described in terms of vocalic and consonantal variations, while theoretically Lexicostatistics was used in calculating the differences and similarities between the dialects. The Ibadan word list of 400 basic items was the primary instrument for data collection.

The informants engaged for this research work were competent speakers of the dialects with S.S.C.E as the minimum educational qualification. The informants were between the ages of 23 to 54 years. The data were collected through a recording device, which were then transcribed for analysis. The work ascertained that Ikere and Ijebu are both dialects of the same language.

Although consonants and vowels are used interchangeably in certain environments, yet they remain highly mutually intelligible. This study therefore serves as a resourceful material for future consultation on comparative works between Ikere and Ijebu dialects and also asserted that Ikere and Ijebu are dialects of the Yoruba language and not entirely different languages.

Table Of Contents

Preliminary Page(s)

  • Title page
  • Certification
  • Dedication
  • Acknowledgements
  • Table of contents
  • Abstract

Chapter One:

Background To The Study

  • 1.0 Introduction
  • 1.1 Origin and Language of the Yoruba people
  • 1.1.1 Ikere Variety and People
  • 1.1.2 Ijebu Variety and People
  • 1.2 Purpose and Significant of Study
  • 1.3 Scope of Study
  • 1.4 Previous Works
  • 1.5 Data and Methodology

Chapter Two:

Review Of Related Literature

  • 2.1 Language and Dialect
  • 2.1.1 Language
  • 2.1.2 Dialect
  • 2.1.3 The Linguistic Viewpoint
  • 2.2 Other Related Studies
  • 2.3 Theoretical Framework

Chapter Three:

Result Of Data Analysis

  • 3.0 Introduction
  • 3.1 Findings
  • 3.1.1 The Vocalic Variation
  • 3.1.2 The Consonantal Variation
  • 3.1.3 Consonant Deletion
  • 3.1.4 Comparative Vocabulary
  • 3.2 Discussions

Chapter Four:

Conclusion And Recommendation

  • 4.0 Conclusion
  • 4.1 Recommendation
  • References
  • Appendix

Chapter One

Background To The Study

1.0 Introduction

This work sets out to do a comparative study to determine the status of the Ikere and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba in order to find areas of convergences and divergences which will help determine the level of mutual intelligibility between them. The motivation for this study is that there have been some controversies as to the relatedness between these two language varieties. Thiswork sets out to examine the Ekiti and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba in the light of these controversies and establishes their linguistic status as well.

The study is divided into four chapters. Chapter one is the general introduction to the study. It entails the preliminaries, the Ikere and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba: the languages and peoples, the aim, scope of study, significance and methodology of study. In chapter two a review of relevant literature is carried out. It entails a linguistic viewpoint, a theoretical review, definition of terms and definition of terms. For chapter three, the data collected is analyzed and the results are also presented to show the convergence and divergence between the Ikere and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba. Chapter four entails the concluding remarks where the summary of work done, findings and conclusion are presented. This is followed by the references and appendix sections.

Languages are used in different forms, in different situations and for different purposes. This use of language has given birth to various forms. For example if a dialect is defined as a geographical sub-division of language, we do not come very far without the definition of language and sub-division is not a very clear concept either. Therefore discussions of the terms will be necessary. These discussions will be treated in the second chapter of this study.

According to Catford (1965:84), a language variety is:

“a subset of formal and or substantial features which correlateregularly with a particular type of socio-situational feature”.

A language can thus be defined as abody of words and system used for communication among people of a particular nation or area. This definition only scratches the surface of language as a whole, but it is essential in the understanding of the afore-mentioned terms.

A dialect then,is a variety of language that is distinguished from other varieties of the same language by features of phonology,grammar and vocabulary, and by its use by a group of speakerswho are set off from others geographically or socially.

This work sets out to do a comparative study to determine the status of the Ikere and Ijebu varieties of the Yoruba language in order to find the areas of convergences and divergences which will help determine the level of mutual intelligibility.

However, there has been some controversies as to the relatedness or otherwise between these two varieties. This work also sets out to examine these varieties and establish the linguistics status of these varieties as well.

1.1 Origin And Language Of The Yoruba People

The Yoruba people have different accounts of their origin but they all relate to the same ancestor, “Oduduwa”. One account is that he migrated from what is called Mecca because of his belief in deities which caused him to be expelled from his abode, and to settle in Ile-Ife and start a dynasty which was further expanded by his seven sons. Another school of taught is of the view that Oduduwa was sent by God to create the human race, but his first descent was at Ile-Ife where he proceeded with his mission.

According to the CIA World Fact Book (2013), the Yoruba diaspora consists of two groupings.One of them includes relatively recent immigrants, the majority which moved outside the shores of Africa and the other includesthose within Africa. It also states that the Yoruba language is one of the 12 Edekiri languages of the Yoruboid group that also includes Igala, Edo, Ebira amongst others. The Yoruba language has numerous varieties spoken in Nigeria and other parts of the world where it is spoken. Aside from Nigeria it is spoken in Benin, Togo, Ghana, Brazil and by immigrant in the United Kingdom and other parts of the world.

Yoruba is a tonal language comprising of three (3) basic tones : high, mid and low tones but these tones may interact producing rising or falling tones.

1.1.1 Ikere Variety And People.

According to the World Gazette (2013) Ikere-Ekiti, also known as Ikere is a city in Ekiti state of Nigeria. Ikere is a variety of the Yoruba language spoken by the Ekitipeople that differ from other varieties of the language.

The Ikere peopleare aboriginal, culturally homogeneous and highly intellectual Yoruboid speaking people that form a sub-group of a larger ethnic group in West Africa particularly in Nigeria.(Nigerian Muse : 2006)

The difference noticeable in the Ikere language are informed by their spatial locations especially the boarder community to the state.

The Ekiti people settle in nucleus urban patterns, well linked within networks of roads. The state “Ekiti” from whichIkere is a tribe, means “mound” and is derived from the rugged mountainous feature of the state. The Ikere people are well known for their diverse quality of traditional arts, poetry and witty sayings.

An Ekiti man can be identified in Bùbá (round neck shirt) and sòkòtò (trousers). While the woman’s dress is Bùbá (blouse) and ìró (wrapper). Generally, any Ikere person can be identified by their facial marks which is a quarter-of-an-inch horizontal line, called “Pele Ekiti”.

1.1.2 Ijebu Variety and People

The Ijebu speak another variety of Yoruba and are found in large concentrations in Epe, Ikorodu and IbejuLekki, apart from those who have longsettled in Lagos Island especially in the area of Idumagbo and EbuteEro.The Ijebu people are mainly from Ogun state in Nigeria. They are bounded in the north by Ibadan, in the east by Ondo, Okitipupa and the west by Egbaland. (Encyclopedia Britannica 2014)

The people are business minded and are shrewd in business. Hence, any Yoruba person that exhibits such behaviour is said to hail from Ijebu. They are also very ritualistic; a typical EbifestivalinEpe for instance features the worship of many deities, cult ceremonies, blood sacrifices and masquerades display.

According to the Journal of The Historical Society of Nigeria (2004), the Ijebu are connected to the larger Yoruba race and are very united despite their presence in more than one state and in many towns. Like other Yoruba tribes, these people can be easily identified with their tribal marks, which are a short line on both cheeks called “Pele Ijebu”.

1.2 Purpose And Significant Of Study

This work is a comparative study of Ikereand Ijebu varieties of Yoruba language. It seeks to compare Ikere and Ijebu varieties of Yoruba to determine their relatedness and determine whether they are dialects or simply varieties of Yoruba language.

This work would also serve as a guide to interested researchers who would want to develop and consolidate the frontiers of this subject matter.

1.3 Scope Of Study

This study covers the language variety of the Yoruba language spoken by the Ijebu and Ikere people.

However, it is limited to these two varieties as they are the main focus of the study.

1.4 Previous Works

There is no contrastive study carried out on Ikere and Ijebu varieties. Although there are individual studies on Ijebu and Ikere respectively, but no work focuses on the varieties as a particular study.

1.5 Data And Methodology

The Ibadan word list of 400 basic items was the primary instrument for data collection. The choice of the Ibadan 400 word list is informed by the factthat it constitutes a reliable and codified source of frequently used words inYoruba language.

Chapter Four

Conclusion And Recommendation

4.0 Conclusion

This project has attempted a purely linguistic analysis of the Linguistic status of Ikere and Ijebu varieties, and findings show that both Ikere and Ijebu varieties are dialects of Yoruba language. In this work, only two varieties were considered ( Ikere and Ijebu) with the purpose of ascertaining their linguistic status. It attempts to rule out the inappropriate allocation of linguistically given status that have been ascribed to Ikere and Ijebu.

The variations that exist between Ikere and Ijebu foster mutual intelligibility, which is why speakers of these dialects have no problem understanding each other.

As records show, there is no existing literature on Ikere and Ijebu as a comparative study but the sound systems of both dialects have been compared.

4.1 Recommendation

These recommendations are subjected to all language lovers. It is not restricted to the State or Federal Government, but also Linguists, language students, native speakers, patriotic citizens and finally, interested individuals.

The area mentioned above has been treated and compared to establish the relationship between the dialects under study. Other areas not mentioned should be adequately studied in other to establish other relationships that may exist between them.

This work is a pioneering attempt; subsequent works may yet reveal more relationships about these dialects and may have implications for the theory of the grammar of African languages.

With respect to the lexicostatistic analysis used in this work, the similarities of both dialects based on their sound inventory are exemplified. This shows the relevance of comparative study of languages in linguistics, showing the extent to which languages are the same, similar, related, or different.

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