The Development Of Women Education In Zaria City 1976-2006

Project and Seminar Material for History

The Development Of Women Education In Zaria City 1976-2006


Abstract


Given the fact that women education serve as a catalyst in achieving development, therefore this study titled ‘the development of women education in Zaria city 1976-2006 examined the history and the development of women in Zaria city. The society of Zaria city during pre-colonial period had developed two forms of educational systems, Islamic education and traditional education. In a traditional educational system, elderly members of the society impart knowledge and skills to the younger members of the society both at home and outside the home while Islamic education was conducted in a formal way where classes were held. Prior to the advent of British colonial rule and western education in Zaria, most parents denied their women the right to education due to socio-cultural belief and economic poverty. The year 1976 saw massive development of women education in Zaria city due to encouraging parent allowing their children to go to school free for all women, building of schools and the establishment of women association ‘Women in Politics’ in 1976 a driving factor to the development of women education in Zaria city. Therefore the development of women education brought somanyimpact to the society.


Chapter One


Introduction

1.1 Background of the Study

Education in its broad perspective is life long process which aims at equipping individuals effectively with acceptable skills, knowledge, beliefs, facts and competences that will enable him to cope favourably with the challenges of the society. It comprises all efforts, conscious or direct, incidental or indirect made by a given society to accomplish certain objectives that are considered desirable in terms of individuals needs as well as the needs of the society were the program is based. The most important role of education is that it serves as a veritable instruments to counter the constraints posed by a dynamic society where man lives.

This chapter gives a general background to this discourse.it introduces the reader to what the researcher has done in the course of this research. Thus the chapter provides the aim and objectives of the study and as well as the methodology the researcher has used in carrying out this research work. It also contributes to knowledge generally. The chapter also examine the geography of Zaria city and its actual foundation as both a political and commercial capital as wellas an emirate.

Zaria city is situated in Zaria LGarea of Kaduna state. It is also one of the emirates of the Sokotocaliphate. The earliest inhabitants of the city were the hausa.Today the area is populated with different ethnic groups i.e. nupe, Yoruba who mostly came to the city for the seek of knowledge during the 19th century jihad and some were there for trade. The area is blessed with resources like fertile land and other natural resources which provide opportunities for human habitation. Majority of the people in the area were farmers and the staple crops grown include yam, guinea corn, maize, beans rice etc. they practice subsistence farming using local farm imputes. Other economic activities practice in the area included domestication of animals, local industries (crafts), and engagement in small scale enterprise.[ii]This research attempt to examine the development of women education in Zaria city 1976-2006.

For a much understanding of this research work there will be need to first examine the socio-political and economic organisation of the area and then go further to examine the nature of indigenous education in Zaria city before the advent of colonial rule. The research also examines the colonial rule and the advent of western education, as well as the development of women education shall also be examined. The research goes forward to assess the development of women education in Zaria city, this will be backed up by raising issues like early marriage, poverty, insurgency etc. and how those problems were overcame in Zaria city prior to the women educational development.

At last the research comes to examine the relative contributions of women to economic, political and social development in Zaria city. The reason that led to the witness and growth of women embarked in education during the period of study shall also be examined. The research is divided into five chapters. Chapter one gives the general background of the study. Chapter two deals with the study area and socio-political formation. Chapter three focuses on women education before colonial rule and the advent of western education. Chapter four analyses the impact of women education on Zaria City. And the last chapter deals with the summery, conclusion an recommendation.


1.2 Statement of the Problem

The modernization of traditional people for many years has formed one of the major problems to our national government and political leaders. It is Impossible for a developing country like Nigeria to make a meaningful head way to wards the realization of developing while the bulk of its people continue to live in the past many communities in Zaria citystill place more importance on male education more than female education. They believe that training a woman is a waste of time and money seem their education ends in kitchen. This has indeed been a big problem to the nation at large and the community in particular because it has greatly hindered development.
No country or nation can grow without the backing and contribution of women. Women are the pillars of the house, kindred, village, community and the entire society. Education in Nigeria does not allow women who form more that half of the population the opportunities to fulfill their potentials as unique and important individuals deserving respect. A modern nation and community reeds individuals who can take active part in public affairs, who are able to exercise their right and performed their duties effectively. It is then very ridiculous and at the same time puzzling when the political leaders talk of national liberation when more than half of the population (Women) are in bondage of illiteracy.


1.3 Objectives of the Study

It is a know fact that women in Nigeria today are more educated than in the past. Women education is well acknowledge and appreciated due to the immense benefit the immediate family as well as the society at large.

Education of women has been observed in recent time as his/her girl child. It is commonly stated that when woman do not get the same education as men the stated instead of being a whole is reduced to a half the level of a women’s education determine herself realization human relationship, economic efficiency and civic responsibility.

The recognition of the need to educate women not with standing, Women up till today are regarded as the second class citizen in operational terms the objectives of the study include.

  1. To trace the problems of women education and find out the problem benefit that can acome from the education of women for the development of the community.
  2. To suggest possible implication of the findings to the study.
  3. To identify the factors that give rise to these problems.
  4. To make recommendation on factors that can contribute to positive solution of these problems.

1.4 Significance of the Study

This research work will bring in to focus the place of women’s education on community development more especially in Zaria city and the entire designing future education policies to meet the needs of all areas with in its Jurisdiction.


1.5 Scope of the Study

These are twenty three local government areas in Kaduna State who can be investigated upon but for the sake of this research work the scope will only focus on Zaria city which comprise of nine communities with init’s areas of jurisdiction.


1.6 Research Questions

For the purpose of this study the following research question were form dated.

  1. To what extent has the education acquired by women helped in the police economic and social development of society?
  2. Does the education acquired by women help in the proper up bringing of their children there by enhancing community development of society.

1.7 Limitation of the Study

In consideration of the limited time, money and the problems of extensive travel, it was decided that the subject should be drawn from one seven (7) villages in zaria city. This means that the sample is not wholly representative.

In addition, there was the willingness of some respondents to fill the question despite some persecutions. In personal interview too, attempts were made to get certain individuals to respond while some bluntly refuse any interview.


1.8 Definition of Terms

With the context of this study, of the following terms should be understood in the same way.

(1) Education:

According to Funlis and vag-nalls (1978) defined education as the development of the whole native of man physical intellect oral and moral through interaction within every phrase of his environment. They stressed that two distinctive phrase are involved in education process.

  • The individual
  • The adjustment to his social environment and the interest of his society as a whole.
(2) Community:

According to Ihejirika, community is a group of people of different backgrounds, identity, cultures, religion race, occupations, living in one place, distribute or country with shared attitude and interest. Differently but a community is there fore a group of people who live in a particular area and have common affinities with which they are easily identified.

(3) History:

History is account of the past which seck seek to provide reasons why things happened the way they did.

(4) Development:

Development involves changes certain places from simplicity to complexity. It implies a progressive change in development and growth. Development is progressive in nature.

Chauhan (1978:51) said that development follows on orderly sequence and a continuous process. Therefore, development in a community implies a change of certain basic amentias in that community which there by improve the standard of living of the people in that community.

(5) Community Development:

The united nations in 1956 defined community development as the process by which the efforts of the people are united with those of the government authorities into the life of the nation and enable them to contribute fully to the national progress.

Generally, the philosophy behind community development is to enhance the quality life of the people of the locality through the improvement of their poverty level, literacy level, ignorance and general standard of living of the rural dwellers.


Chapter Five


Conclusion, Education Implication and Recommendation

5.1 Conclusion

That the issues of poor female education has raised a number of socio-economic questions in most societies of the world is a truism. The problem of educational disparity between the male and female sections of the society is even more acute in the use developed countries. It is on this basis that most of the third world countries embark on mass literacy campaign. This study has shown that government has paid little attention in zaria in respect of education and the community itself made no effort in this regard. Hence female education suffered some state back. It is on record that since government has deemed it necessary to establish some schools. The student’s population has increased a little.

Finally, it is worthy of note that this study is not an exhaustive analysis of the whole question on female education on zaria. Beside these factors other aspects of female education not covered in the study. The researchers therefore hope that this study will serve as a useful guide to subsequent studies in this area.


5.2 Education Implication

As the study revealed, the most important of the study centered on the role education play in the lives of women in order to aid community development since the development of the society is the responsibility of both male and female inhabitant. But with personal observation in the area of study. It seems that development task will devolve on the men, in a situation of little or no education among the women. This will retard progress under this condition any development initiated by the women cannot succeed without the help of men. In some cases, women associated find it difficult to produce officials.

In such situations, financial records become memory works and therefore unreliable in view of all those, educational revolution in zaria becomes imperative.


5.3 Recommendation

  1. Since government distribution of schools disfavored the zaria community to embark on self help projects to boost education both for their female and male children. Through the kaduna State Government has decided to help in establishing new schools community self-help effort in the field of education will still be an adequate solution to the problems in the area.
  2. Female students should be given adequate encouragement so that they would have the zeal to further their education.
  3. The local district council should embark on adult education with emphasis on adult females.
  4. They should give moral support. A female who erred while in school, for instance being pregnant should be made to continue her schooling after delivery. Child bearing should not constitute a total break on girls in this area of study by philanthropic organization and individuals.
  5. Husbands should therefore assist in the training their wives to promote female education in Zaria
  6. Open lectures should be organized in the area of study in order to enlighten the illiterate section of the community on the importance of education of their children both Boys and Girls.
  7. The church should as well assist eradicating this problem of illiteracy among our women by re-activating their curriculum to include reading and writing. Infact, the church as an agent of socialization, could be a useful forum to eradicate some of the cultural beliefs that hinder female education in the community.

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