Development Of A System That Would Allocate Resources Evenly Over A Wireless Network During Multicast Sessions
Wireless multicast is a topic of great interest to Internet service providers, cellular and personal communication services, content providers, and businesses with multiple sites requiring simultaneous updates. This study aims to develop a system that would allocate resources evenly over a wireless network during multicast sessions. This system would use multicast packets to deliver information to each recipient individually rather than sending packets individually addressed to each node. This is especially important with wireless networks having limited throughput available. This paper presents an overview of the current state of the art of wireless multicast communications.
1.1 Background of the Study
Multicast sessions are expected to be a common form of traffic in emerging mobile ad hoc networks. However, the recently developed theory for fair resource allocation in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks (MANETs) (Lin & Shroff 2004; Eryilmaz & Srikant 2005, 2006; Stolyar 2005, 2006; Neely et al. 2005) only addresses the case of unicast flows. Other than developing appropriate notation, it is somewhat straightforward to extend the theory to multicast sessions if one assumes that data is delivered to all the receivers in a multicast group at the same rate. Such a form of multicast is called single-rate multicast. On the other hand, there are many video applications which allow layered-transmission so that different receivers can subscribe to different numbers of layers and receive different qualities of the same video, depending upon the congestion level in their respective neighborhoods. Moreover, in wireless networks, due to varying signal strengths at different receivers, it may not be desirable or feasible to deliver data at the same rate to all the receivers in a multicast group. Thus, it is important to extend the optimization-based theory to handle multi-rate multicast sessions, i.e., multicast sessions where different receivers are allowed to receive at different rates. Such an extension is not immediate as in the case of single-rate multicast.
In the last few years there has been significant growth in the area of wireless communication. Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineering (IEEE) 802.16 (WiMAX) is the network which is designed for providing high speed wide area broadband wireless access. It consists of a base station (BS) and multiple subscriber station (SSs). BS transmits data to the SSs through broadcast channel. The SSs are linked to BS through multiple access channels. IEEE 802.16 standard utilize new nodes called relay stations (RSs). The RSs relay data between the BS and the SSs in upward and downward direction. WiMAX is an emerging wireless technology for creating multi-hop Mesh network. Future generation networks will be characterized by variable and high data rates, Quality of Services (QoS), seamless mobility both within a network and between networks of different technologies and service providers. A technology is developed to accomplish these necessities is regular by IEEE, is 802.16, also called as WiMAX (Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access). WiMAX supports Long range connectivity, High data rates, High security, Low power utilization and Excellent Quality of Services and squat deployment costs to a wireless access technology on a metropolitan level.
Due to broadcast nature of the wireless medium, multicasting do not need more resources compared to unicasting. Multicast is used to transmit the data from the source to multiple receivers. It is useful because it allows the construction of truly distributed application, and provides important performance optimizations over unicast transmission. There are a number of existing applications for real-time audio and video conferencing which can make good use of a multicast service when it is available. Due to heterogeneous channel conditions, each recipient may experience different bit error rates and the amount of resources required may vary for each recipient. Most modern technologies utilize adaptive modulation and coding scheme to suit the channel conditions. When there are more recipients to serve, the sender tends to consume more resources. Since the wireless medium has limited resource, it is not always possible to provide multicast services for all the subscriber stations. Within the resource budget of a multicast service, resource utilization should be done to serve as many recipients (i.e., SSs) as possible. WiMAX provides better platform for Multicast. When a network only consists of a BS and SSs, this maximization can be done by allocating the entire resource budget to the BS. However, if RSs are considered, this problem becomes much difficult because resource should be allocated among the BS and RSs.
1.2 Problem Statement of the Study
However, the time-varying nature of the wireless environment, coupled with different channel conditions for different users, poses significant challenges to allocate shared resource in a fair manner among users. Moreover, the lack of availability of channel and arrival statistics further complicates the solution.
Unlike Ethernet, most traffic in 802.11 is sent reliably using ACKs and NACKs so that radio interference doesn’t cause unbearably high packet loss. However, multicast packets are sent once and are not acknowledged, so they are subject to much higher loss rates.
Another issue with multicasting is that multicast frames experience lower quality of service. With 802.11 networks, lower throughput will definitely be the case when one or more of the wireless clients are using the 802.11.
1.3 Aim of the Study
The aim of this study is to develop a system that would allocate resources evenly over a wireless network during multicast sessions.
1.4 Objectives of the Study
- To solve routing issues that arises during the sending of multicast packets over a wireless network.
- To develop a wireless network that reduces congestions during multicast sessions.
- To reduce minimum power multicasting problems.
- To allocate resources fairly using a resource algorithm during multicast sessions.
- To improve the quality of service during multicast sessions.
1.5 Significance of the Study
This study aims to use multicasting, meaning delivery of information using multicast packets, to conserve the bandwidth of a network because only the transmission of a single packet is necessary rather than sending packets individually addressed to each node. This is especially important with wireless networks having limited throughput available.
1.6 Scope of the Study
This study covers the allocation of resources over a wireless network, during multicast sessions; it does not include wired networks and other routing sessions.
Summary, Conclusion and Recommendation
Wireless multicast is a topic of great interest to Internet service providers, cellular and personal communication service providers, content providers, and businesses with multiple sites requiring simultaneous updates. Service providers can use multicast to support content-distribution services for which they might charge their customers a premium.
Businesses can use wireless multicast to distribute software and data updates to branch offices and stores worldwide. However, many important issues must be addressed before multicast can be widely deployed, including: new business models for charging wireless customers and for revenue distribution among providers; maturity of wireless multicast software, applications, and middleware support, vendor support, and router interoperability; and the user trust necessary for conducting mobile transactions.
Mobile commerce application categories include mobile financial management, mobile advertising, mobile inventory management, proactive service management, mobile auctions, mobile office functions, mobile entertainment, and multiparty games. A major issue is providing multicast communications for mobile users, along with location management, quality of service, dependability, business models and pricing, application development, and regulatory issues. Multicast communications is needed for such m-commerce applications as mobile auctions, interactive games, and other group-oriented interactions, though specific requirements vary.
This project was designed with an ad hoc wireless network, using simulation software, for full implantation of this design, real network devices would be needed to test the configurations and network functionality of the design.
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